RSED 3000 Reilly Exam 2

IDEA Definition of Learning Disability (LD)
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A disorder in one or more of basic psychological
processes involved in understanding or using
May manifest itself in an imperfect ability to:
Listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
mathematical calculations
Includes perceptual disabilities, brain injury,
minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and
developmental aphasia
Does NOT include learning problems that are the
result of other disabilities or environmental,
cultural, or economic disadvantage
1. Discrepancy between intelligence and achievement
An "unexpected" difference betw general ability and
2. Exclusion criterion
SS' difficulties are not the result of another known
condition that can cause learning problems
3. A need for special education services
S shows specific and severe learning problems
despite standard educational efforts
A. Exclusion of adults:
LD can occur across the life span
B. Reference to "basic psychological processes"
This is curricular issue concerning HOW to
teach and NOT a definitional one
C. Inclusion of spelling as a LD
Spelling subsumed under "written expression"
D.Wording of exclusion clause
Suggests LD cannot occur w other disabilities
• General term that refers to group of disorders manifested
by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of
• (a) listening, (b) speaking, ©reading, (d) writing,
(f)reasoning, or (g) mathematical abilities
• These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and
• presumed to be due to central nervous system
dysfunction and may appear across the life span
• Reading problems - approx. 80% of all children identified
• Deficits in written language - Perform lower than their age-matched peers w/out disabilities across most written expression tasks
• Underachievement in math = More than 50% have math IEP goals
• Poor social skills = approx. 75% have social skills deficit
• Attention deficits and hyperactivity
• Behavioral problems = Higher than usual incidence of behavior problems
•Low rates of self-esteem/self-efficacy
• Lower levels of self-efficacy, mood, effort, and hope
Specific & significant achievement deficits in the
presence of adequate overall intelligence
• Performance gap becomes especially noticeable
and "disabling" in the middle and secondary
• Difficulties experienced by SS w LD,
o especially for those who cannot read at grade level,
o are substantial and pervasive
o and usually last across the life span
Causes of LD (1 of 2)Brain Damage or Dysfunction o In most cases there is NO evidence of brain damage; o Neuroimaging research reasonably consistent in revealing functional and/or structural differences in left temporal lobe of brain of individuals w dyslexia HEREDITY o Evidence that genetics account for some family links w dyslexia Biochemical imbalance o Significant cause of or treatment for learning disabilitiesCauses of LD (2 of 2)Environmental Factors o Impoverished living conditions early in child's life & limited exposure to highly effective instruction contribute to achievement deficits Tendency for LD to run in families suggests o a correlation between environmental influences on o children's early development and subsequent achievement in school Many SS' learning problems remediated by direct, intensive, & systematic instruction!Identification and Assessment of LD1. Standardized Intelligence & Achievement Tests Used to measure the discrepancy between achievement and general intellectual ability 2. Curriculum-Based Measurement Used to measure growth of S's proficiency in core skills that contribute to success in school 3. Direct Daily Measurement Used for observing & recording S's performance on a specific skill each time it is taught 4. Criterion-Referenced Tests Used to compared a child's score with a predetermined criterionBasic premise of RTI:• Measuring low-achieving S's response to increasingly intensive, scientifically validated instruction can • determine whether S's struggles to learn are • result of poor or insufficient instruction or • of disability for which SPED is neededTwo functions of RTI• (1) Screening/identification and (2) prevention Trustworthiness of RTI depends on • Consistent, rigorous implementation of • research-based interventions • Accurate, reliable, easy to use measures for • monitoring S's progressRTI Tier I: Primary Intervention in GE Classroom• Primary prevention is provided to ALL SS in the form of evidence-based curriculum and instruction in the GE classroomRTI Tier II: Secondary InterventionSS struggling in GE program receive an intensive fixed-duration trial of small-group supplemental tutoring using a research-validated programRTI Tier III: Tertiary Intervention• In most RTI models, Tier 3 is special educationBenefits and Goals of RTI• Earlier identification of SS using a problem-solving approach instead of a "wait-to-fail" approach; • Reduction in • # of SS referred for special education; • over-identification of minority SS; • Provision of more instructionally useful data than those provided by traditional methods of assessment & identification • SS exposed to high-quality instruction in GE classroom by stipulating that schools use evidence-based instructional practices and routinely monitor the progress of ALL SS • Service to ALL SS with achievement problems, so that only those SS who fail to respond to multiple levels of intervention efforts receive the label learning disabledEducational Approaches for LDContent enhancements used to enhance the organization and delivery of curric content ○ Graphic Organizers and Visual Displays ○ Note-Taking Strategies ○ Guided Notes ○ Mnemonics A learning strategy is an individual's approach to learning tasks ○ SS use task-specific strategies to guide themselves successfully through a learning task or problemEducational Placement Alternatives for LDGeneral education classroom • Research on academic achievement of SS with LD in inclusive classrooms identified that over 60% of SS w LD educated in GE classrooms. Consultant teacher • Provides support to GET who work directly with SS w LD • Works with several TS and thus indirectly serve many SS • Most consultant TS have little direct contact w SS Resource room • is a specially staffed and equipped classroom where SS w LD come for one or several periods during school day to receive intense individualized instruction • Resource room T works closely w GET to suggest & plan each S's program Separate classroom • A SET is responsible for ALL education programming SS w LDIDEA Define of Emotional DisturbanceOne or more of following characteristics displayed over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance: Inability to learn that is not related to other factors build or maintain satisfactory peer or teacher relationships Inappropriate feelings or behavior under normal conditions General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems DEFINITION DOES NOT apply to children who are "socially maladjusted" UNLESS they have an emotional disturbance but definition includes schizophrenia Individual T expectations and tolerances make identification a difficult and subjective processCCBD Definition of Emotional or Behavioral DisordersBehavioral or emotional responses SO DIFFERENT from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect educational performance including (a) academic, (b) social, © vocational or (d) personal skills • More than temporary, expected responses to stress • Consistently exhibited in two different settings, • at least one of which is school related • Unresponsive to direct intervention in GE settingTwo primary behavioral excesses of SS with EBD1. Externalizing behaviors = most common behavior pattern - Lying - Temper tantrums - Stealing - Property destruction - Threats of violence or violence tow peers and/or Ts 2. Internalizing behaviors - Overly shy or immature - Withdrawn - Hypochondria - Easily upset and difficult to calmAcademic Achievement of EBD- Low GPA: 1 or more yrs below grade level academically - Difficulty passing competency exams for their grade level - High absenteeism - At risk for school failure and early drop out - Reciprocal relationship betw ○ behavior problems and low academic achievement - Many have learning disabilities and/or language delays - Achievement deficits tend to worsen as SS grow older - Many score in slow learner or mild intellectual disabilities range on IQ testsSocial Skills of EBD- Less participation in extracurricular activities - Lower quality peer relationships - Lower levels of empathy towards others - Higher rates of juvenile delinquency - High rates of recidivists as juvenile delinquentsPrevalence of EBD• Less than 1% of school age pop received services under category of EBD • Given prevalence data, there are many SS not receiving specialized services • Survey of principals of juvenile corrections facilities found o 40% of ALL committed youth classified w a disability Gender • Vast majority are boys w externalizing disorders in form of antisocial, aggressive behaviorsCauses of EBDBiological factors • Brain Injury • Genetics • Temperament Environmental factors • HOME o Relationship w parents & inconsistent parenting practices • SCHOOL o T actions, ineffective instruction • COMMUNITY ○ drug and alcohol abuse, ○ gangs, ○ deviant sexual behaviorIdentification and Assessment of EBDScreening tests Ψ Used to determine if intervention is warranted Ψ Behavior rating scales or checklists Ψ Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) Direct observation and measurement Ψ Directly focuses on the S's problems Ψ Useful for educational planning Functional Behavioral Assessment Ψ Used to help understand the WHY of challenging behavior Ψ Indirect and direct measures Ψ Functional AnalysisCurriculum Goals of EBDAcademic skills Ψ Direct, explicit, and effective instruction Ψ High rates of teacher praise Social skills Ψ Cooperation skills Ψ Appropriate ways to express feelings Ψ Responding to failure Ψ Learning social and nonacademic skills Ψ that match T expectations Behavior Management • School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) ±Tier1= Primary Prevention: ± Universal Supports for ALL SS ± Tier2-Secondary Prevention: ± Targeted Interventions for SS w at-risk Behaviors ±Tier 3-Tertiary Prevention: ± Intensive, Individualized Interventions for SS w high-risk Behaviors Self-Management • Self-Monitoring and Self-EvaluationProactive Positive Classroom Management Strategies for EBD• Structuring physical environment of classroom • Establishing clear rules and expectations • Anticipating & addressing problem behaviors BEFORE they occurLesson Planning for EBD• Planning lessons THAT INCLUDE o Managing transitions o Opportunities for making choices o Presenting instructions in a way to increase compliance o Keeping SS actively engaged • CONSISTANTLY USE praise and positive reinforcement • Peer Mediation and Support o Peer monitoring o Positive peer reporting o Peer tutoring o Peer support and confrontation o Group contingenciesFostering STRONG T-S Relationships for EBDDifferential acceptance • Witness or be victim of acts of anger wout responding similarly Empathetic Relationship • Recognize & understand the nonverbal cues reflective of S's individual needs • Help replace antisocial and maladaptive behaviors w socially appropriate behaviors Focus on alterable variables • T FOCUS effort on only those variables • that make a difference in S learning and • can be affected by sound teaching practiceEducational Placements of SS w EBD• 40% received their education in GE classroom • Most SS w emotional or behavioral disorders have serious problems that require intensive intervention • A major challenge is arranging an environment in which • academic & social skills can be learned at acceptable rates while protecting the safety of ALL SS.Challenges, Achievements, & Advocacy for EBDEstablishing commitment of resources sufficient for large scale programs of early detection & prevention Closing gap betw WHAT is known about effective SPED for SS w EBD and WHAT those SS experience each day in GE & SPED roomIDEA Definition of Autismo Autism is a developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's performance. o Other characteristics are (a) engagement in repetitive activities and (b) stereotyped movements, © resistance to environmental change or (d) change in daily routines, and (e) unusual response to sensory experiences o Autism does not apply if child has a serious emotional disturbanceDSM-IV Definition Autism Disordermarked by 3 defining features, with onset before age 3: (1) impaired social interaction, (2) impaired communication, and (3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activitiesDSM-IV Definition Asperger Syndromeimpairments in ALL social areas, particularly an inability to understand how to interact socially. These children do not have general language delay, and most have average or above-average intelligenceDSM-IV Definition Childhood Disintegrative Disordershares characteristics with autistic disorder, but doesn't begin until after the age of 2 and sometimes not until age 10DSM-IV Definition Pervasive Developmental Disorder=Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS):diagnosis given to children who meet some, but not all, of the criteria for autistic disorderDSM-5 Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder• DSM-5 combines 2 core deficit areas: • (1) impairments in social interaction and • (2) impairments in communication • into a single domain of • (a) social/communication deficits and subsumes Asperger's disorder into a single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder • Child diagnosed w autism spectrum disorder will be ascribed one of three levels of severity based on amount of support requiredCharacteristics of AutismA. Impaired Social Relations B. Communication and Language Deficits C. Repetitive, Ritualistic, & Unusual Behavior Patterns D. Insistence on Sameness and Perseveration E. Unusual Responsiveness to Sensory Stimuli F. Varying Levels of Intellectual Functioning, Uneven Skill Development G. Problem Behavior: Some SsCharacteristics of Asperger Syndrome• Intense interest in a particular subject • Fascination with maps, globes, and routes • Perfectionist, frustrated when asked to submit work one feels is below standard • Clumsiness, difficulty w fine & gross-motor activities • Inflexible adherence to routines • Superior rote memory, tendency to amass many related facts • Extensive vocabulary • Speech and language impairments in areas of semantics, pragmatics, and prosody; pedantic, odd speech patterns; formal style of speaking • Difficulty understanding others' feelings • Difficulty developing and maintaining friendshipsPrevalence of Autism• Rise autism prevalence is international phenomenon • Boys affected abt 4 to 5 times more often than girls • Autism is fastest-growing category in SPEDCauses of AutismAutism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with NO medical or physiological marker o Cause of autism is unknown in majority of cases. o No causal link betw parenting style & autism ever been discovered o A clear biological origin of autism in the form of abnormal brain development, structure, and/or neurochemistry o Autism clearly has a genetic component o NO evidence of childhood vaccinations causing autismSCREENING TOOLS, IDENTIFICATION, & ASSESSMENT of Autism• Early diagnosis highly correlated w dramatically better outcomes • Professional assessment of behavioral characteristics is used to determine whether ASD is present in a child • Autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months of agePurpose of Social StoriesSocial stories explain social situations and concepts & expected behaviors of persons involved in a format understandable to an individual with ASD.Format of Social StoriesSocial stories are written at S's level of comprehension and usually contain following 4 basic types of sentences written from the perspective of the student. 1. Descriptive sentences 2. Perspective sentences 3. Directive sentences 4. Affirmative sentences Social stories usually constructed w 1 sentence per pageGeneral Education Classrooms and SS with ASDSS w autism are increasingly placed in GE rooms for purpose of improved social integration. Success in GE classroom for S w ASD depends on S's ability to reliably/@ a high-rate-of-frequency: o Display low levels of problem behavior o Participate and learn in group lessons o Complete assigned tasks semi- to- independently o Interact with peers appropriately o Comply w classroom rules o Follow T's and other's directions o Get T's attention & seeks assistance appropriatelyCommunication (definition)the interactive exchange of information, ideas, feelings, needs, and desiresCommunication involves+A message +A sender who expresses the message +A receiver who responds to the messageFunctions of communication• Narrating • Explaining/Informing • Requesting • ExpressingLanguage (definition)formalized code that a group of people use to communicate with one another5 DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE:• (1) Phonology= rules determining how sounds can be sequenced and combined • (2)Morphology = rules for the meaning of sounds ○Free morphemes: can stand alone in meaning ○Bound morphemes: do not carry meaning by themselves ● (3) Syntax= rules governing the meaningful arrangement of words ● (4) Semantics = rules for the meaning of words and combination of words ● (5) Pragmatics = rules governing the social use of languageSpeech (definition)the oral production of languageSpeech sounds are product of 4 related processes:1. Respiration=Breathing that provides power 2. Phonation =Production of sound by muscle contraction 3. Resonation =Sound quality shaped by throat 4. Articulation =Formation of recognizable speech by the mouthTypical Speech & Language Development• Most children follow a relatively predictable sequence in their acquisition of speech and language • Knowledge of typical language development can help determine whether a child is developing language at a slower-than-usual rate or whether child shows an atypical pattern of language developmentASHA Definition of Communication Disorders• An impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts of verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbols systemsIDEA Definition of Communication DisordersA communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performanceSpeech Impairment (definition)when speech deviates so from the speech of other people that it • Calls attention to itself • Interferes with communication • Provokes distress in the speaker or listener3 basic types of speech impairments are1. Articulation disorders =errors in the production of sounds 2. Fluency disorders =difficulties w the flow or rhythm of speech 3. Voice disorder = problems w the quality or use of one's voiceCAUSES of SPEECH IMPAIRMENTSCleft palate •Paralysis of the speech muscles •Absence of teeth •Craniofacial abnormalities •Enlarged adenoids •Traumatic brain injury •DysarthriaCleft Palatea split or opening in roof of mouth. Can involve hard palate (bony front portion of roof of mouth), and/or soft palate (soft back portion of roof of mouth).Cleft Lipa physical split or separation of 2 sides of upper lip & appears as a narrow opening or gap in skin of upper lip. This separation often extends beyond base of nose and includes bones of upper jaw and/or upper gum.Dysarthriais a motor speech disorder. Muscles of mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected.Language disorderimpaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systemsLanguage disorder may involve in any combination:• Form of language = (phonology, morphology, and syntax) • Content of language = (semantics) • Function of language = (pragmatics) Language disorders may involve receptive &/or expressive disordersCAUSES OF LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTSDevelopmental and intellectual disabilities Autism Traumatic Brain Injury Child Abuse and Neglect Hearing Loss Structural Abnormalities of Speech mechanism Aphasia Genetics Environmental InfluencesCommunication Differences Are NOT Disorders! DIALECTS:× result from historical, linguistic, geographical, and sociocultural factors × share a common set of rules with the standard language × of any group of people is neither inferior nor superior to the dialect spoken by another group × A child who uses a dialect different from the dominant culture of the school should not be treated as having a communication disorder × Some children with communication differences have communication disorders within their dialects that should not be overlookedCharacteristics of CDA. Speech sound errors B. Articulation Disorders C. Phonological Disorders D. Fluency Disorders E. Voice Disorders F.Language ImpairmentsSpeech sound errors1. Distortions 2. Substitutions 3. Omissions 4. AdditionsArticulation Disorders•A child is not able to produce a given sound physicallyPhonological DisordersA child has ability to produce a given sound and does so correctly in some instances but not othersFluency DisordersStuttering and cluttering are examplesVoice DisordersA phonation disorder causes the voice to sound breathy, hoarse, husky, or strained o Resonance disorders results in hypernasality or hyponasalityLanguage Impairments• A receptive language impairment interferes with understanding of language • An expressive language impairments interferes with expression through languageLanguage disorders involve problems in 1 or more of the 5 dimensions of language:1. Phonology 2. Morphology 3. Syntax 4. Semantics 5. PragmaticsLanguage delayimplies a child is slow to develop linguistic skills but acquires them in a typical sequenceLanguage disorderssuggests a disruption in the usual rate and/or sequence in which specific language skills emergePrevalence• It is second largest disability category under IDEA • Approx 2/3 of school-age children served by SLPs are boys • % of children with speech and language disorders decreases significantly from the earlier to the later school gradesIdentification and Assessment of CDScreening and Teacher Observation Evaluation components ○ Case history and physical examination ○ Articulation ○ Hearing ○ Phonological awareness and processing ○ Vocabulary and overall language development test ○ Assessment of language function ○ Language samples ○ Observation in natural settingsLanguage Function•Echoic= repeating words spoken by others •Mand= asking for desired items, actions, etc. •Tact= naming items, actions, properties, etc. •Listener= responding to language •Intraverbal= answering questions •Textual= reading •Transcription= spellingIntervention Strategies Across Communication FunctionsInclude a test of language function Establish intervention priorities Implement an intervention program Track skill acquisition Practice and generalizationFor SS whose first language is NOT English:• include assessments of basic interpersonal communication skills and • cognitive academic language proficiencyEducational Approaches Treating Articulation and phonological errors:o Discrimination and production activitiesEducational Approaches Treating Fluency disorders:Behavioral principles and self-monitoringEducational Approaches Treating Voice disorders:o Direct vocal rehabilitationEducational Approaches Treating Language Disorderso Vocabulary building, naturalistic interventionsEducational Approaches Treating Augmentative and alternative communicationo A diverse set of strategies and methodsAugmentative and Alternative Communication (ACC)refers to a diverse set of strategies and methods to assist individuals who cannot meet their communication needs through speech or writingACC entails 3 aided or unaided components1. A representational symbol set or vocabulary 2. A means for selecting the symbols 3. A means for transmitting the symbolsSymbol sets and symbol systems for ACC1. Selecting the symbols 2. Transmitting the symbolsPECa form of augmentative and alternative communication and is divided into several phasesHow to Get Started with PECConduct preference assessment Create a set of pictures Teach basic picture exchange Stretch the lesson Teach discrimination Teach simple sentence structure Teach attributes, responding to questions, & commentingEducational Placement for Language DisordersVAST majority of children with speech and language impairments are served in general education classroomsSome examples of service delivery models for Language Disorders:• Monitoring • Pullout • Collaborative consultation • Classroom or curriculum based • Separate classroom • Community-based • Combination