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abnormal psychology-chapter 4: research methods
Terms in this set (85)
In a treatment study, the introduction of the treatment to the participants is referred to as the ______
After the treatment study has been completed, you find that many people in the control group received treatment outside of the study. This is called a ______
A researcher's guess about what a study might find is labeled the _____
Scores on a depression scale improved for a treatment group after therapy. The change in these scores would be referred to as a change in the _____
A relative lack of confounds in a study would indicate good _______ , whereas good generalizability of the results would be called good _____
A researcher changes the level of noise several times to see how it affects concentration in a group of people
A group of researchers uses chance assignment to include participants in one of two treatment groups and uses published protocols to make sure treatment is applied uniformly.
randomized clinical trials
A researcher wants to investigate the hypothesis that as children go through adolescence they listen to louder music
A researcher is interested in studying a woman who had no contact with civilization and created her own language
A researcher wants to know how different kinds of music will affect a 5-year-old who has never spoken.
single case experimental design
benefit: shows individual development
benefit: no cohort effects
limitation: cohort effect
limitation: cross-generational effect
limitation: no individual development
T or F: After participants are told the nature of the experiment and their role in it, they must be allowed to refuse or agree to sign an informed consent form
T or F: If the participant is in the control group or taking a placebo, informed consent is not needed.
T or F: Research in universities or medical settings must be approved by the institution's review board regarding whether or not the participants lack the cognitive skills to protect themselves from harm
T or F: Participants have a right to concealment of their identity on all data collected and reported
T or F: When deception is essential to the research, participants do not have to be debriefed regarding the true pose of the study.
problems with case studies
no experimental control, be suspect of internal and external validity
does correlational research tell us if a relationship between two variables is causal?
what type of research is a type of correlational research that reveals the incidence, distribution, and consequences of a particular problem in one or more populations?
what are the two types of experimental research?
group or single case
in experimental research designs, the effects are observed to determine what?
the nature of a causal relationship
genetic research focuses on the role of ___ in behavior
the clinical picture, causal factors, and treatment process and outcome can all be influenced by ____ factors
The more the findings of a research program are replicated, the more they gain in ____
Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it.
Combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs involving repeated study of different cohorts over time.
Limit on the generalizability of longitudinal research because the group under study may differ from others in culture and experience.
cross generational effect
Systematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time (contrast with cross-sectional design).
Literally "the view back"; data collected by examining records or recollections of the past. It is limited by the accuracy, validity, and thoroughness of the sources.
Observation that people of different age groups differ in their values and experiences.
Participants in each age group of a study with a cross-sectional design.
Methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing individuals of different ages (contrast with longitudinal design).
Research strategies for comparing genetic markers in groups of people with and without a particular disorder.
Inherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known.
Study that seeks to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker. This helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder.
gene linkage analysis
In genetics research, the comparison of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common characteristics such as a disorder, even if they were reared in different environments, this is strong evidence of genetic involvement in those characteristics.
In genetics research, the study of first-degree relatives reared in different families and environments. If they share common characteristics, such as a disorder, this finding suggests that those characteristics have a genetic component.
In genetics research, the individual displaying the trait or characteristic being studied.
Genetic studies that examine patterns of traits and behaviors among relatives.
Genetic mechanisms that contribute to the underlying problems causing the symptoms and difficulties experienced by people with psychological disorders.
Ongoing scientific attempt to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes.
human genome project
Specific genetic makeup of an individual.
Observable characteristics or behaviors of an individual.
Single-case experimental design in which measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations. A particular intervention is introduced for each at different times. If behavior change is coincident with each introduction, this is strong evidence the intervention caused the change.
Measured rate of a behavior before introduction of an intervention that allows comparison and assessment of the effects of the intervention.
Removing a treatment to note whether it has been effective. In single-case experimental designs, a behavior is measured (baseline), an independent variable is introduced (intervention), and then the intervention is withdrawn. Because the behavior continues to be measured throughout (repeated measurement), any effects of the intervention can be noted. Also called reversal design.
Degree of behavior change with different interventions (for example, high or low).
Direction of change of a behavior or behaviors (for example, increasing or decreasing).
Degree of change in a phenomenon over time.
When responses are measured on more than two occasions (not just before and after intervention) to assess trends.
Research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause-and-effect conclusions but with limited generalizability (contrast with case study method).
single case experimental designs
Outcome research that contrasts two or more treatment methods to determine which is most effective.
comparative treatment research
Procedure in outcome studies that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving treatment and who is receiving placebo.
double blind control
In an outcome experiment, a control group that does not receive the experimental manipulation but is given a similar procedure with an identical expectation of change, allowing the researcher to assess any placebo effect.
placebo control groups
Behavior change resulting from the person's expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation itself.
Research method that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explanations of any observed effects.
Psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations.
Possibility that when two variables, A and B, are correlated variable A causes variable B or variable B causes variable A.
Association between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases.
Computed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables. It can range from 21.00 through 0.00 (indicating no association) to 11.00, with the absolute value indicating the strength and the sign reflecting the direction.
Association between two variables in which one increases as the other increases.
Degree to which two variables are associated. In a positive correlation, the two variables increase or decrease together. In a negative correlation, one variable decreases as the other increases.
Research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. The method does not allow conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships, and findings can be generalized only with great caution (contrast with single-case experimental design)
case study method
Tendency to consider all members of a category as more similar than they are, ignoring their individual differences.
patient uniformity myth
Statistical measure that shows the amount of difference among the members of a group in a clinical study.
Degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems.
Probability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small.
Extent to which research results apply to a range of individuals not included in the study.
Approach to research that employs subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions.
Method for placing individuals into research groups that assures each an equal chance of being assigned to any group, thus eliminating any systematic differences across groups.
Group of individuals in a study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment received by the experimental group. Their presence allows for a comparison of the differential effects of the treatment.
Variable in a research study that was not part of the intended design and that may contribute to changes in the dependent variable.
Any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied.
Ability of a hypothesis, for example, to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful.
Extent to which research findings generalize, or apply, to people and settings not involved in the study.
Extent to which the results of a study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out.
Phenomenon manipulated by the experimenter in a study and expected to influence the dependent variable.
In an experimental study, the phenomenon that is measured and expected to be influenced (compare with independent variable).
Plan of experimentation used to test a hypothesis.
Educated guess or statement to be tested by research.
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