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abnormal psychology-chapter 1: abnormal behavior in historical context
Terms in this set (66)
Miguel recently began feeling sad and lonely. Although still able to function at work and fulfill other responsibilities, he finds himself feeling down much of the time and he worries about what is happening to him. Which of the definitions of abnormality apply to Miguel's situation?
Three weeks ago, Jane, a 35-year-old business executive, stopped showering, refused to leave her apartment, and started watching television talk shows. Threats of being fired have failed to bring Jane back to reality, and she continues to spend her days staring blankly at the television screen. Which of the definitions seems to describe Jane's behavior?
impairment in functioning, dysfunction
Maria should recover quickly with no intervention necessary. Without treatment, John will deteriorate rapidly
Three new cases of bulimia have been reported in this county during the past month and only one in the next county.
Elizabeth visited the campus mental health center because of her increasing feelings of guilt and anxiety.
Biological, psychological, and social influences all contribute to a variety of disorders.
The pattern a disorder follows can be chronic, time-limited, or episodic.
How many people in the population as a whole suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Supernatural causes; evil demons took over the victims' bodies and controlled their behaviors.
exorcism/burning at stake
The humoral theory reflected the belief that normal functioning of the brain required a balance of four bodily fluids or humors.
Maladaptive behavior was caused by poor social and cultural influences within the environment
patient placed in socially facilitative environments
Treating institutionalized patients as normally as possible and encouraging social interaction and relationship development.
Hypnosis, psychoanalysis-like free association and dream analysis, and balance of the id, ego, and superego.
Person-centered therapy with unconditional positive regard
Classical conditioning, systematic desensitization, and operant conditioning.
what are the three basic categories of psychological disorders research?
description, causation, treatment/outcomes
what is abnormal behavior attributed to in the supernatural tradition?
agents outside our bodies or social environment (demons/spirits/moon)
what is abnormal behavior attributed to in the biological tradition?
disease or biochemical imbalances
what is abnormal behavior attributed to in the psychological tradition?
faulty psychological development and social context
what does humanistic psychology focus on?
human potential and self-actualizing (not psychological disorders)
what is one outgrowth of freudian therapy?
Mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment.
mental hygiene movement
Treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors (such as family experience), as well as psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.
Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces.
Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences.
Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them.
Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.
Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility.
person centered therapy
Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.
Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked.
In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner.
Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response.
Psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation
Scientific study of psychological disorders.
Mental health professionals who are expected to apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment.
Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem.
Details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder.
Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time (compare with incidence).
Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period (compare with prevalence).
Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time.
Predicted future development of a disorder over time.
Cause or source of a disorder.
Religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body.
Psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.
Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud.
Accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.
Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.
In psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic sexual and aggressive drives.
In psychoanalysis, the psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.
In psychoanalysis, the psychical entity representing the internalized moral principles of parents and society.
In psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego.
Common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego.
In psychoanalysis, the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time.
psychosexual stages of development
In psychoanalysis, the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.
Obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they cause. Plural is neuroses.
Derived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts. Also known as self-psychology.
Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.
Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts.
Therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or a Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training.
Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems.
Acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation.
unconditional positive regard
Fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.
Learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing.
Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.
Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change.
In operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence. Negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviors may result from their reinforcement or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors.
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