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abnormal psychology-chapter 2: integrative approach to psychological disorders
Terms in this set (52)
The fact that some phobias are more common than others (such as fear of heights and snakes) and may have contributed to the survival of the species in the past suggests that phobias may be genetically prewired. This is evidence for which influence?
Nathan, age 16, finds it more difficult than his 7-year-old sister to adjust to his parents' recent separation. This may be explained by what influences?
Jan's husband, Jinx, was an unemployed jerk who spent his life chasing women other than his wife. Jan, happily divorced for years, cannot understand why the smell of Jinx's brand of aftershave causes her to become nauseated. Which influence best explains her response?
A traumatic ride on a Ferris wheel at a young age was most likely to have been the initial cause of Juanita's fear of heights. Her strong emotional reaction to heights is likely to maintain or even increase her fear. The initial development of the phobia is likely a result of _____ influences; however, _____ influences are likely perpetuating the phobia.
T or F: The first 20 pairs of chromosomes program the development of the body and brain.
false- 22 pairs
T or F: No individual genes have been identified that cause any major psychological disorders.
T or F: According to the diathesis-stress model, people inherit a vulnerability to express certain traits or behaviors that may be activated under certain stress conditions.
T or F: The idea that individuals may have a genetic endowment to increase the probability that they will experience stressful life events and therefore trigger a vulnerability is in accordance with the diathesis-stress model.
false - reciprocal gene-environment model
T or F: Environmental events alone influence the development of our behavior and personalities.
false - it is complex interaction of nature and nurture
Karen noticed that every time Tyrone behaved well at lunch, the teacher praised him. Karen decided to behave better to receive praise herself.
Josh stopped trying to please his father because he never knows whether his father will be proud or outraged.
Greg fell into a lake as a baby and almost drowned. Even though Greg has no recollection of the event, he hates to be around large bodies of water.
Juanita was scared to death of the tarantula, even though she knew it wasn't likely to hurt her.
What we _____ is strongly influenced by our social environments.
The likelihood of your having a particular phobia is powerfully influenced by your
A large number of studies have demonstrated that the greater the number and frequency of _____ relationships and ______ , the longer you are likely to live.
The effect of social and interpersonal factors on the expression of physical and psychological disorders may differ with ____
The principle of ____ is used in developmental psychopathology to indicate that we must consider a number of paths to a given outcome
Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders as always being the products of multiple interacting causal factors.
multidimensional integrative approach
Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes. A single gene is a subunit of DNA that determines inherited traits in living things.
Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
diathesis stress model
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.
that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
gene-environment correlation model
The study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes.
Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
Individual nerve cell; responsible for transmitting information.
Short periods of electrical activity at the membrane of a neuron, responsible for the transmission of signals within the neuron.
The end of an axon (of a neuron) where neurotransmitters are stored before release.
Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next.
Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders.
Chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands.
Neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain.
Chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects.
In neuroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.
Chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter.
Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft.
Amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action.
Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety.
Neurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of movement, as well as inhibition and restraint. It also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
Neurotransmitter active in the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because of its role in the body's alarm reaction, it may also contribute generally and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders.
Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviors (thus balancing serotonin).
Field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information.
Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether or not they do in reality).
(also known as observational learning) Learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior.
An ability that has been adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations to be learned more readily than others.
Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them (contrast with explicit memory).
Biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (for example, blood flow and respiration) to resist or flee a threat.
fight or flight
Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response.
Enduring period of emotionality.
Conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.
A model describing different emotions as points in a 2-dimensional space of valence and arousal.
Developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes.
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