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Human Sexuality Today Chapter Six
Chapter 6 Module 6 Prof B's class
Terms in this set (126)
True or false, Sweden and Denmark have substantially lower teenage birth rates than the United States
True or false, The world population is expected to stabilize by the year 2020 because of increased use of birth control.
True or false, The U.S. fertility rate is presently about 1.9 births per woman
True or false, A relatively effective method of birth control for women is to wash out the contents of the vagina immediately after sexual intercourse.
What is the most effective way to avoid an unwanted pregnancy?
abstaining from sexual intercourse
Studies have found that about __________ of every 100 women using the withdrawal method conceive within the first year of use.
Suzanne has the calendar method to track her fertile days and has kept track of the length of her last 10 menstrual cycles. To determine the unsafe days, the days in her cycle during which she and her partner should abstain from sex, she would subtract __________ from the length of her longest cycle and __________ from the length of her shortest cycle.
The __________ combines the Billings cervical mucus method with measurements of basal (resting) body temperature (BBT).
A __________ is a large, dome-shaped rubber cup with a flexible rim that fits over the cervix
The contraceptive sponge contains enough spermicide to be effective for __________ hours after being inserted into the vagina.
__________ work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and preventing ovulation. They contain both estrogen and progesterone, and some research shows that they are slightly more effective but carry slightly more risks than alternative birth control pills.
Which of the following is a potential negative side effect or health risk to a woman when she first starts taking a combination pill?
The most effective form of emergency contraception is __________ within 5 days after intercourse
having a copper IUD inserted
Which of the following statements is correct about emergency contraception?
Emergency contraception is not an abortion.
What is the most commonly used reversible contraceptive method in the world?
__________ is a hormone implant with a single progestin-releasing rod that is effective for 3 years.
What is the most commonly used method of contraception worldwide
How long after a man has a vasectomy should a couple use another form of contraception to ensure that the man is "safe?
Until he has had 20 ejaculations.
Which of the following statements about methods that help prevent sexually transmitted infections is correct?
The contraceptive methods that are the most effective in preventing pregnancy offer no protection against STIs.
Currently undergoing testing, __________ are contraceptive creams or gels that also kill bacteria and viruses.
How many abortions are performed annually throughout the world?
Worldwide, 7 million women a year in developing countries need medical treatment for complications from ___________ abortions.
From 2006 to 2010, almost __________ of women used five or more methods of birth control.
Unfortunately, many of these women use no type of contraception at all for at least __________ after stopping use of their first choice.
Involves noting changes in cervical mucus in order to determine when to abstain from intercourse
Uses a simple mathematical formula to determine when to abstain from intercourse
Prevents sperm deposited in the vagina from getting into the uterus
Thickens cervical mucus; prevents ovulation
combination pill, the patch, and the vaginal ring
Blocks sperm from getting into the vagina
male condom, female condom
Prevents fertilization of an egg; prevents implantation
Blocks sperm from getting into the vagina
male condom, female condom
Active ingredient kills sperm; prevents sperm deposited in the vagina from getting into the uterus
A hormone implant with a single progestin-releasing rod that is effective for 3 years.
An oral contraceptive that contains only progestins.
A fertility awareness method of birth control that attempts to determine a woman's fertile period by use of a mathematical formula.
A flexible ring containing the same hormones as the combination birth control pill that is inserted into the vagina and is effective for 3 weeks.
A version of the cervical cap; a barrier (or blockade) method of contraception.
For a particular birth control technique, the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by all couples who use the technique, regardless of whether they use it properly or consistently.
typical-use pregnancy rate
Withdrawal of the man's penis from his partner's vagina before ejaculation in order to avoid conception.
withdrawal (coitus interruptus)
A birth control device, usually made of plastic with either a copper or progesterone coating, that is placed in the uterus to prevent conception and implantation.
IUD (intrauterine device)
Market name for medroxyprogesterone acetate, a chemical that when injected suppresses ovulation for 3 months.
A cream or gel that is applied intravaginally or intrarectally before sex in order to kill, block, or inactivate bacteria and viruses that cause sexually transmitted infections.
A contraceptive device made of polyurethane sponge that contains enough spermicide to be effective for 24 hours after being inserted into the vagina.
A general term for surgical techniques that render an individual infertile.
For men, a thin sheath made of latex rubber, lamb intestine, or polyurethane that fits over the penis. For women, an intravaginal pouch held in place by two flexible rings. Condoms are effective as contraception and for prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
An oral contraceptive that contains both synthetic estrogen and synthetic progesterone.
Methods of birth control that attempt to prevent conception by having a couple abstain from sexual intercourse during the woman's ovulation.
fertility awareness methods
The male sterilization technique in which the vas deferens is tied off and cut, thus preventing passage of sperm through the reproductive tract.
A dome-shaped rubber cup with a flexible rim that fits over the cervix and thus acts as a contraceptive device by serving as a barrier to the passage of sperm into the uterus.
A general term for a variety of female sterilization techniques that prevent passage of an egg through the Fallopian tubes.
An intravaginal pouch; a 7-inch-long bag that is held in place in the vagina by two flexible rings.
Chemicals that kill sperm. In most products, the chemical is nonoxynol-9.
Methods that prevent conception when used in the first few days after sexual intercourse.
General term for contraceptive methods that block the passage of sperm.
barrier (blockade) method
In reference to contraception, the sucking response by a baby on the mother's nipple inhibits release of follicle-stimulating hormone, thus preventing ovulation.
lactational amenorrhea method (breast-feeding)
For a particular birth control technique, the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by couples who use the technique properly and consistently.
perfect-use pregnancy rate
The prevention of conception.
A fertility awareness method of birth control in which changes in the consistency and quantity of cervical mucus are used to tell when ovulation has occurred.
A combination of the basal body temperature and Billings fertility awareness methods.
A fertility awareness method of birth control for women who typically have menstrual cycles of 26 to 32 days.
Standard Days Method
A contraceptive patch (containing the same hormones as the combination birth control pill) that is applied to the skin and is effective for 1 week.
A contraceptive device that fits over the cervix by suction, thus blocking the passage of sperm into the uterus.
Termination of pregnancy. Depending on how far the pregnancy has advanced, this can be done by taking a pill (RU 486), scraping the uterine lining (dilation and curettage), removing the uterine lining by suction (dilation and evacuation), or inducing labor (by injecting hypertonic saline or prostaglandins).
Which contraceptive method is used when a couple attempts to prevent conception following the birth of an infant by breastfeeding?
lactational amenorrhea method
What is the fertility awareness method of birth control in which changes in the consistency and quantity of cervical mucus are used to tell when ovulation has occurred?
The __________ is an intravaginal pouch - a 7-inch-long bag that is held in place in the vagina by two flexible rings.
OrthoEvra is a small contraceptive patch which is applied to a woman's skin; it is effective for __________.
What is the most effective method of emergency contraception (within 5 days after intercourse)?
implantation of a copper IUD
__________ is a hormone implant with two progestin-releasing rods that is effective for 5 years
A tubal sterilization which is made with 1-inch incisions in a woman's abdomen in which her Fallopian tubes were pulled to the opening and blocked with clips. What type of transabdominal procedure is it?
Researchers are trying to develop __________ that will cause the body to produce antibodies to protein in either sperm or eggs.
__________ can kill, block, or inactivate bacteria and viruses that cause sexually transmitted diseases.
__________ is a pill that can be used to chemically induce an abortion up to 8 weeks after a woman's last menstrual period.
What common factor is shared by the following contraceptive methods? Withdrawal (pull-en-pray, Coitus interruptus), gravity methods (standup and jump afterward or woman on top), sex in the hot tub, sex during the menstrual cycle, toothpaste spermicide, douching, Coca Cola douche, first-time freebee, Lactational amenorrhea method, Mountain dew as a sperm de-activator.
magical, contraceptive myths
What is the sex-ed program which which emphasizes the how and why to say no to sex?
abstinence only sex-ed
The Comstock Act of 1873 written by Anthony Comstock, "Act of the Suppression of Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use, made it illegal to send "obscene, lewd or lascivious," "immoral," or "indecent" publications through the mail. The law also made it a misdemeanor for anyone to sell, give away, or possess an obscene book, pamphlet, picture, drawing, or advertisement. The breadth of the legislation included writings or instruments pertaining to ________________, birth control, and abortion
The most effective way to avoid an STI or unwanted pregnancy?
to abstain from sexual intercourse
The following pregnancy myths were endemic to what era: pregnancy was viewed as a magical event that was unrelated to intercourse...certain fruits contain the spirits of children and pregnancy results from indulging in eating that fruit, the sun, wind, moon, stars, and sea-foam are responsible for pregnancy.
In ancient China a woman who wanted to terminate a pregnancy would be advised to drink what type of concoction?
What would an woman who desired to end a pregnancy in ancient Greece do?
drink leftover blacksmith quenching water that was laden with lead
What common factor is shared by the following: weasel testicles tied around a woman's legs, amputated weasel foot worn around woman's neck, wreaths of herbs and desiccated cat livers, the bones of a black cat, the anus of a hare, the woman walking three times around a spot where a pregnant wolf urinated?
contraceptive myths of the Middle Ages?
In what culture or era was honey coveted for its capacity to change the acid balance of the vaginal and concoctions of crocodile dung, herbs, and cotton with honey were inserted into the vagina as a spermicide or primitive barrier method?
In Europe what item was used as a forerunner to the cervical cap?
What was the party line of America's Voluntary Motherhood Movement?
What contraceptive concoction was drank by Canadian women?
moonshine steeped in brown beaver testicles.
In Leslie J. Reagan's article why don't we have to imagine the Consequences of Abortion Bans?
the past teaches what it would look like.
Chicago's Cook County Hospital had __________ ___________ annually in the abortion ward — women who were bleeding, infected and sometimes dying.
In the article "What Life is Like When Abortion is Banned" by Margaret Wurth what was the consequence for Rosaura Almonte Hernández, known as "Esperancita," who was both pregnant as well as diagnosed with leukemia?
she died at 16
In the Tedtalk, "Abortion isn't on any woman's bucket list" by Amanda Bradley how many lifetime menstrual cycles doe she say a woman will undego?
Worldwide, there are about _____ _______ pregnancies each year, of which 41% are unintended?
The teenage pregnancy rate in the United States is the ___________ of any developed country in the world
Teenage pregnancies are _______ ______ _____ to occur among those with low income or low levels of education?
a. not as likely
b. much more likely
c. twice as likely
b. much more likely
______________ ____________ _________ is the percentage of couples who would conceive if all couples who were using the technique used it consistently and properly.
perfect-use pregnancy rate
_______________ ____________ ________ is usually higher than the perfect-use rate because not all people use a method consistently or properly.
typical-use pregnancy rate
The birth control pill is highly effective, but it is not recommended for women with ______________ _____________?
Over _____ out of every 100 couples who use douching as their only means of birth control will conceive in a year's time
A study authorized by Congress found that abstinence-only programs had no__________ ___________. In fact, teens who take abstinence-only courses are less likely to use condoms when they do have sex and are more likely to get (or get someone) pregnant
The lactational amenorrhea method has what hormonal significance? The sucking response of the baby on the mother's nipple inhibits the release of _______ _______ ______ from the pituitary, thus preventing normal menstrual cycles and ovulation.
FSH and LH
The fertility awareness method is also called the rhythm method or _________ _________ ___________?
natural family planning
Fertility awareness is based on predicting when _____________ occurs.
The calendar method uses a ___________ ____________ to calculate a window of potential ovulation. It allows for variation within a woman's monthly cycle. Shortest cycle - 18days Longest cycel - 11days
___________ _______ __________ is a fertility awareness rythm method of birth control for women who typically have menstrual cycles of 26 to 32 days.
Standard Days Method
The rhythm method which observes the consistency of the cervical mucus?
The rythm method that combines the Billings cervical mucus method with measurements of basal (resting) body temperature (BBT) is called the _________________ _________________?.
What method of birth control is designed to prevent pregnancy by placing a blockade between the penis and vagina/cervix so that sperm cannot reach the egg if ovulation has occurred.
___________ are thin sheaths made of latex rubber, lamb intestine, polyurethane, or synthetic elastomers that fit over the penis and thus trap the sperm.
A _______________ is a large, dome-shaped rubber cup with a flexible rim that fits over the cervix.
When used in combination with a spermicide, the perfect-use pregnancy rate for the diaphragm is usually stated as about _______ per year. The typical-use pregnancy rate is about ____ per year.
The ___________ _______ is made of latex rubber, it is smaller and more compact than a diaphragm and resembles a large rubber thimble. It is used with a small amount of spermicide (for added effectiveness) and fits over the cervix by suction.
the cervical cap
The __________ is a version of the cervical cap that is more readily available. It is made of silicone (which is more comfortable than latex rubber), it has a concave side that fits over the cervix. Spermicide can be applied to both the inside and outside surfaces. Once inserted, it can be left in place for as long as 48 hours.
The _______________ ___________ is 2 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick, it is made out of polyurethane, and it contains spermicide (nonoxynol-9). It works by blocking the cervical opening and killing sperm (see Figure 6-9).
________________ contain chemicals that kill sperm (nonoxynol-9). They are sold in a variety of forms, but all of them must be placed in the back of the vagina shortly before sexual intercourse begins. They lose their effectiveness over time, so new ____________ must be inserted shortly before each time a woman has intercourse.
The combination pill works primarily by (a) thickening cervical mucus, which prevents sperm from traveling, and (b) preventing ovulation. The hormones in the pill prevent the pituitary from releasing FSH and LH (see Figure 6-10). Without an ______ present, it is impossible to get pregnant.
True or false, birth control pills protect against sexually transmitted infections?
__________ is a 20-square-cm patch that you apply to the skin (on the abdomen, buttocks, upper torso, or upper arm) like a Band-Aid (see Figure 6-11). It stays in place for 1 week, even during exercise and bathing, and slowly releases estrogen and progestin
____________________ is a clear, flexible ring that is inserted into the vagina and worn for 3 weeks (see Figure 6-11). It, too, slowly releases estrogen and progestin and after 3 weeks is removed for a ring-free week (menstruation) before another one is inserted.
___________ is a 3-month progesterone-only ring for use in women who are breast-feeding.
True or false, the ring protects against STIs?
___________________ is a single rod that contains progestin and remains active for 3 years (Figure 6-13). It works by thickening cervical mucus and preventing ovulation. It is inserted under the skin, usually on the inside of a woman's upper arm, and can be removed at any time.
Nexplanon (formerly Implanon)
The contraceptive methods that are the ________ __________ in preventing pregnancy offer no protection against STIs
If an __________ _____________ should occur, a woman (or a couple) really has only three options: to continue with the pregnancy and keep the baby, to continue with the pregnancy and put the baby up for adoption, or to terminate the pregnancy (abortion).
_________________ _________________: Once the standard procedure for unwanted pregnancies of 15 weeks or less, D&C procedures are now used less and less for purposes of abortion. Under general anesthesia, a woman's cervix is dilated, and the lining of the uterus is then scraped with a metal instrument called a curette.
Dilation and curettage (D&C)
________________ ______________: In this procedure, which does not require general anesthesia, a tube is inserted through the cervix and the fetal material is removed by suction.
Dilation and evacuation (D&E)
_______________ ______________: This method is used exclusively for termination of pregnancies that have proceeded beyond 16 weeks. A solution of hypertonic saline or prostaglandins is injected into the amniotic sac and induces labor within 12 to 36 hours. The fetus is born dead
The Supreme Court decision (________________) prohibited the states from interfering with decisions made between a woman and her doctor during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
(Roe v. Wade)
Within the Catholic Church, for example, even _____________ ___________ believed that human life began in the second trimester, not at conception.
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