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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Topic 3 Hoyt Test
Terms in this set (119)
By the mid 1700s what areas of North America did British and French control?
The French controlled a vast territory the extended from the Saint Lawrence river to the golf of Mexico
What was the great French advantage in North America?
French support from most of the American Indians in the region
What did both the French and British do to woo the Indians? Why did they do this?
The British and French both gave generous gifts, especially of arms and ammunition
Also known as the Havdenousavnee, were a group of American Indian peoples who lived in upstate New York and neighboring lands
Why did the balance of power tip in favor of the British in the mid- 1700s?
The balance begin to tip as the British colonial population grew, and in 1754, the 1.5 million British colonist greatly outnumbered the 70,000 French.
Which side, British or French, was a greater threat to the American Indians?
The British were a greater threat
The fighting between the British and French begin over control of what region?
The fighting begin at the fertile Ohio River Valleys
War fought from 1754 to 1763 in which Britain and its colonies defeated France and it's American allies, gaining control of eastern North America
Seven Years' War
Served as a British commander in North America during the French and Indian war
What turned the tide of the war toward the British in 1758 to 1759?
The British managed to cut off French shipping to the Americas.
At the end of the war, what areas did the British/French/Spanish control and North America?
The British captured fort Duquesne, they seized the key French fortress of Loiusburg, which guarded the entrance to the Saint Lawrence river
Why was the outcome of the French and Indian war a disaster for Native Americans?
The American Indians could no longer play the French and the British against each other. The British military commander lord Jeffrey Amherst quickly cut off delivery of goods to American Indians
Uprising in 1763 by American Indians in the Great Lakes region
What was the goal of Pontiacs rebellion? Did it succeed?
To weaken the British and lure the French back into North America
Declaration by the British king ordering all colonist to remain east of the Appalachian mountains
Proclamation of 1763
What is the proclamation line of 1763 effective? Explain
The British troops, however, we're too few to restrain the thousands of colonists
What issues caused tension between Britain and the colonies?
Benjamin Franklin 1754 proposal to form one government for a group of Britain's colonies in North America
Albany Plan of Union
Why did the colonies and the British reject the Albany plan of union?
The colonists feared they would lose power to the British Parliament, colonist feared an increase in taxes, colonist feared they would lose territory and that commerce would decline, and many members of the British government feared the colonies would be too strong if united
During the 1760s, how did Britain attempt to reclaim its authority among the colonies?
During the 1760s, the British acted on their own to impose new taxes in new regulations on colonial trade. Those changes angered colonists who wanted to preserve the sort of loose empire they had produced so many benefits at so little cost
What rights did British liberty include? Which right was cherished above all?
British liberty included the process of common law, trial by jury, and freedom of the press from censorship. Above all, the colonists cherish the right to pay no tax unless it was levied by the representatives
How many members of British Parliament did colonists elect?
The colonist did not elect any members of British Parliament
In general, who controlled the government in the colonies and Great Britain?
Wealthy men controlled government in the colonies and in Great Britain
How did colonial government and British government differ in terms of their constitutions and eligible voters?
The British constitution was not a formal document but a collection of laws and traditions accumulated over centuries. In addition, 2/3 of free colonial men owned enough property to qualify to vote, compared to less than a fourth of British men
Members of parliament believed that they virtually represented every British subject, including the colonists
British policy in the early 1700s that allowed the colonies virtual self rule as long as Great Britain was gaining economically
According to the colonists, who had the right to tax them?
The colonies believed that only their own elected officials had that right
Why did parliament need to tax the colonies after the French and Indian war?
The seven years war nearly doubled Britain's national debt and greatly expanded its colonial territories. Parliament needed to raise money, both to pay the debt and to protect the colonies
Lowered the duty on foreign molasses, however it also assigned customs officers in created court to collect the duties and prosecute smugglers
Act that required the colonies to provide housing and supplies for the British troops stationed there after the French and Indian war
Why did the colonist feel Parliament had no right to tax them? Why were colonists especially fearful of the stamp act?
The colonists argued that the colonies had no representation in Parliament, so Parliament had no right to tax them. The colonists claimed that the stamp act threatened their prosperity and liberty, and colonial leaders question parliament right to tax the colonies directly
Why did the colonists arguments puzzle members of parliament?
After all, most Britons paid taxes although they could not vote. Many large greatest cities did not elect representatives to parliament, which claim to represent everyone in the empire
What three forms the tax resistance among the colonist take?
Intellectual protest, economic boycott, and violent intimidation
How did colonial leaders resist?
Colonial leaders wrote pamphlets, drafted resolutions, gave speeches, and delivered sermons to persuade colonists to defy the new taxes
What liberal ideas did enlightenment writers such as Baron de Montesquieu and John Locke promote?
They argued that people had divinely granted natural rights, including life, liberty, and prosperity. Locke insisted that government existed for the good of the people
What was the main argument in Patrick Henry Virginia resolves?
He argued that only the colonial assemblies had the right to tax the colonists
Those who opposed the British taxes
Organization of colonists formed in opposition to the stamp act and other British laws in taxes
Sons of liberty
Who was the most famous leader of the sons of liberty?
How did the sons of liberty violently protest the stamp act and Boston?
In August 1765, a mob led by the sons of liberty tore down the office and damaged the house of the stamp tax collector
Colonial consumer boycotts of British exports in response to taxes passed by Parliament
When colonist stopped buying British goods, they needed homespun cloth to substitute for British manufactured cloth
These women won respect for their efforts in the political struggle
Daughters of liberty
Were these various protests successful?
Yes, under pressure from British merchants and manufacturers, parliament repealed the stamp act in 1766
Levied new import duties on every day items such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea
Why did the colonists especially resent the Townshend acts?
They resented Townshends plans to use the money to pay the salaries of colonial governors and judges, making them more independent of the colonial assemblies
Why did Britain send 4000 troops to occupy Boston, a city of only 16,000 people?
To suppress riots
Why did the presence of these troops inflame Bostonians anger?
The poorly paid soldiers competed with unskilled workers for jobs
Sailor who may have been an escaped slave of mixed American Indian and African ancestry
Incident on March 5, 1770, in which British soldiers killed five colonists in Boston
Network of local groups that informed the colonies of British measures and opposition to them in the years before the revolutionary war
Committees of correspondence
Even though parliament withdrew troops from Boston and dropped most of the Townshend duties, what tax did they keep?
The tax on tea
Protest against British taxes in which Bostonian protesters dumped tea into the harbor in December 16, 1773
Boston tea party
Describe the five laws of the coercive acts (intolerable acts) that outraged the colonists
In addition to closing the port, the five laws that made up the coercive acts forced colonist to house British troops and allowed British officials to be tried in Britain for crimes committed in the colonies. One of the laws, the Quebec act, extended Canada's southern border, cutting off lands claimed by several colonies. The horrified colonists called the new laws the intolerable acts
How did people in rural Massachusetts react?
They reacted to the British actions with violence. Armed with clubs and guns, they forced the courts of law to shut down, and they also assaulted people
Group of delegates representing all the American colonies, except Georgia, then met in 1774
First continental congress
How did the delegates of the first continental congress combat the coercive acts?
To pressure parliament to withdraw the coercive acts, the delegates announced a boycott of all British imports
1765 law passed by Parliament the required colonist to pay taxes on printed materials
what three important decisions did the colonists of British American make in 1776?
First, they declared independence from Britain, second, they chose a Republican model for the new government, third, they confederated the 13 states of the United States of America
What action by royal governor of Massachusetts General Thomas Gage provoked the fighting at Lexington and Concord?
He sent troops to arrest Hancock and Adams in Lexington and two seize patriot weapons stockpiled in Concord
Trained citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
British soldiers who marched into town at dawn, and the British commander ordered the colonial militia to disperse
Members of armed patriot groups who would take the field at a moments notice in the days leading up to and during the revolutionary war
Colonists who remain loyal to Britain during the revolutionary war
Assembly of delegates representing every colony that met in 1775 in Philadelphia following the battles of Lexington and concord
Second continental Congress
Which body assumed responsibility for the war?
Army that represented the colonies during the revolutionary war
Why didn't the continental congress declare independence from Britain after Lexington and Concord?
They recognized that most of their constitutions were not ready to do so
Reaffirmed the colonists allegiance to the king but not to parliament
Olive branch petition
How did King George III react to Olive branch petition?
He rejected the petition and sent more troops to Boston
How many colonists remained loyal to Britain? What groups made up the most loyalists?
Most colonists supported the continental congress and the boycott of British imports, but a large minority preferred British rule
What complaints did the loyalists have against the patriots?
Many loyalist dreaded patriot crowds and committees, viewing them as illegal and brutal
Why did loyalism appeal to American Indians?
American Indians wanted British help to keep out the settlers pressing westward
Why did loyalism appeal to enslaved people?
Slaveholders lead the revolution in the southern colonies, their slaves saw the British as thentrue champions of liberty. Thousands of enslaved people sought their freedom by running away to join the British forces
Book by Thomas Paine, many Americans read what they longed to believe but had not known how to express
What radical course of action for the colonies did pain propose in Common Sense?
Independence from Britain, republican state governments, and a union of their new states
According to paine, who was the greatest enemy of American liberty?
Form of government in which officials are elected by the people
What benefits did paine see in establishing a republic America?
Americans could establish a model that would inspire common people everywhere to reject kings and aristocrats
Document drawn up by the second continental Congress, and approved in 1776, that announced American independence and explained the reasons for it
Declaration of Independence
What bold idea did Thomas Jefferson advance in the declaration of independence?
That all men are equal
Universal rights, such as life and liberty, that derive from nature rather than from government, according to philosophers
Natural rights(Unalienbale Rights)
How many ideas put forth in the Declaration of Independence not align with the reality of time?
This sweeping statement was far ahead of the social and economic reality in the new United States. For example, many of the signers of the declaration owned slaves. But the idea of the equality would inspire your future generations of Americans, including enslaved people, to make a better, more equal society
What advantages did the British have at the start of the war?
They had a leader in manufacturing, Britain produced more ships and weapons than the colonists did and the British also had an established government
What challenges did the Americans face at the start of the war?
The continental congress struggled to pay for the war, Congress and the states printed paper money to pay their debts, producing inflation that damaged the economy, and continental soldiers suffered from hunger and cold
Served as a commander in chief of the Britain army from 1776 to 1778, during the revolutionary war
What tactical mistakes did William Howe make a bunker hill? Why did he do this?
He ordered a frontal assault by soldiers in the middle of the day. Carrying heavy packs and wearing red uniforms, his men marched uphill straight into a murderous fire from and trenched patriots. I wanted to win the battle despite giving the patriots every advantage
How did the British eventually win the battle of Bunker Hill?
Instead of proving Howe's point, the British suffered a bloodbath as two charges failed. A third charge captured the hills only because the patriots ran out of ammunition
Why was Bunker Hill a win for the Americans as well?
Technically, the British had won the battle, but they suffered more than twice the patriots casualties, and the patriots had won a psychological victory
Why did the British abandon Boston?
With patriot cannons shelling both Boston and the British ships in the harbor, the British abandoned Boston in March
Describe Howe's misguided strategy
The British thought they were fighting a traditional European war. They believed that the patriots would surrender if howe could defeat the Continental Army and capture the major seaports, including Philadelphia, the patriot capital
How was this a different type of war? How did this impact the patriots fighting strategies?
The patriots never understood that this was a revolutionary war, but the patriots understood that it was a struggle to win the hearts and minds of the civilian population. Instead of surrendering, the patriots kept on fighting
Describe George Washington strategy (war of attrition)
Washington realized that to pressure his continental army from destruction, he could not risk all on a major battle under unfavorable conditions. By preserving and inspiring his soldiers, Washington sustain them through incredible hardships
How did American woman contribute to the war effort?
Woman freed their husbands and sons for military service by running farms and shops. They also made clothing, blankets, and shoes for the soldiers.
What is profiteering? What had been done that resulted in a shortage of supplies?
Profiteering is selling in demand items at a very high price. The patriots caused inflation by issuing paper money. As a result the value of money decreased
American farmers would sometimes choose to sell their products to the British army instead of the American army. Why would they do this?
The farmers sold their crops to the patriots, it would be paid in continentals, paper money issued by the continental congress. It would be worth nothing if the patriots lost. The British army, paid for their food in gold
What services did camp women provide?
They maintain the camps, washed clothes, a few women even helped fire cannons or serve the soldiers by masquerading as men
Mary Hayes, known for delivering water to troops during the battle of Monmouth. Legend says that she even stepped in and took her husband's place at the canon
Why was the modest victory at Trenton important for the patriot cause?
It raised the spirits of the troops and of patriot supporters at a critical moment
Why can the patriot victory at Saratoga be considered the turning point of the war?
The victory at Saratoga took on greater importance because it encouraged France to recognize American independence and to enter war. France welcomed the opportunity to weaken an old enemy
A French aristocrat who joined the American patriot cause in 1777
Marquis de Lafayette
How did Spain help the patriot cause?
Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo the Galvez, provided money and supplies to the patriots and prevented British ships from entering the Mississippi River at New Orleans
German soldier, hadcome to help the patriots, soldiers improved from careful drillings supervised by this person
Baron Von Steuben
Why was the war in the frontier especially destructive?
The outbreak of the war between the colonists and the British escalated the frequent skirmishes between settlers and American Indians, leading the settlers to claim more Indian lands
Why would many of the native Americans side with the British?
The British had promised to keep the colonists in the east
Why did the British move the war to the south?
As the war continued, the British expected loyalist support in the south, especially among the farmers of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
The war in the south turned into a brutal Civil War. What did this mean?
The British failed to control the southern countryside, where the revolution became a brutal Civil War between patriot and loyalist militia's. Both sides plundered and killed civilians
Why did many southern loyalists turn their support over to the patriot cause?
At Kings Mountain in South Carolina, the patriots crushed a loyalist militia and executed many of the prisoners. As the loyalists lost men and territory, neutral civilians swung over to the patriot side
How was the American victory at Yorktown somewhat lucky?
Washington planed to trap Cornwalls army at Yorktown. For the plan to work, however, Washington needed a French fleet to arrive at the right moment to prevent the British Navy from evacuating their army by sea. The French fleet appeared at just the right moment
1783 peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War and affirmed American independence
Treaty of Paris
Who were the greatest winners of the revolution? Why? Who are the greatest losers of the revolution?
The greatest winners were the patriot men of at least modest prosperity. They secured political rights and the economic benefits of Western expansion. The losers were loyalists and American Indians who had sided with the British
What happened to the British loyalists after the war?
The British tried to protect their loyalists allies by setting conditions in the treaty, but state laws in mob violence prevented most loyalist from returning to their homes after the war. About 90,000 including 20,000 former slaves became refugees
Use evidence to explain why the American victory was a disaster for the American Indians
American Indians were stunned when the British abandon them and 1783. The treaty of Paris ignored American Indians, leaving them vulnerable to expanding American settlements. The patriots first American Indians to give a massive tracks that land is the price of peace. More than 100,000 Americans lived in Tennessee and Kentucky by 1700.
Republican mothers, explain this idea
Woman gained few political or legal rights as a result of the war, but they won respect based on the new conception of women as Republican mothers. Abigail Adams and Judith Sergeant Marine noted that the republic needed virtuous citizens, who learned virtue from their mothers
What did it mean when Abigail Adams asked her husband John Adams to remember the ladies? How did her husband react?
Abigail Adams asked her husband John to remember the ladies in drafting the new nations laws. Although John Adams respected his wife, he dismissed her request
How was slavery in the north impacted by the revolution? How was slavery in the south impacted by the revolution?
In the northern states, some slaves positioned legislatures for emancipation into their owners in the courts. The southern states feared armed blacks as a threat to the slave system, so at least 50,000 southern slaves escaped to join the British
The act of freeing someone from slavery
Thomas Paine predicted that the American revolution would change the world. Use examples to prove he was correct
Over the next three centuries, the patriots principles inspired revolutions around the world. Beginning with the French revolution in 1789, European Republicans cited the American precedent to overthrow kings and aristocrats. In the 19 century, independent republic's emerged throughout Latin America. During the 20th century, Africans and Asians begin national liberation movements.
The intolerable acts included
Closing of boston harbor
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