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22 terms

Bio - Ch. 6

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Autotroph
organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic molecules such as CO2, and energy from the environment
Heterotroph
organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compounds assembled by other organisms
Photosynthesis
metabolic pathway by which most autotrophs capture light energy and use it to make sugars from CO2 and water.
Chlorophyll a
main photosynthetic pigment in plants
Pigment
an organic molecule that can absorb light of certain wavelengths
Wavelength
distance between the crests of two successive waves of light
Chloroplast
organelles specialized for photosynthesis in plants and some protists
light dependent reactions
first stage of photosynthesis; convert light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
light independent reactions
second stage of photosynthesis; use ADP and NADPH to assemble sugars from water and CO2
stroma
semi fluid matrix between the thylakoid membrane and the two outer membranes of the chloroplast
thylakoid membrane
A chloroplast's highly folded inner membrane system; forms a continuous compartment in the stroma
electron transfer phosphorylation
process in which electron flow through electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation
photolysis
process by which light energy breaks down a molecule
photosystem
cluster of pigments and proteins that converts light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
Calvin-Benson cycle
light independent reactions of photosynthesis; cyclic carbon fixing pathway that forms sugars from CO2.
Carbon fixation
process by which carbon from an inorganic source such as carbon dioxide gets incorporated into an organic molecule
Rubisco
Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Carbon fixing enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle.
C-3 plant
type of plant that uses only the Calvin Benson cycle to fix carbon
C4 plant
type of plant that minimizes photo restoration by fixing carbon twice, in two cell types
CAM plant
type of C4 plant that conserves water by fixing carbon twice, at different times of day.
Photorespiration
reaction in which rubisco attaches oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to ribulose biphosphate
Stomata
gaps that open on plant surfaces; allow water vapor and gases to diffuse across the epidermis.