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marine biology test (monday)
you will also need to be able to label the picture on the study guide
Terms in this set (47)
the cup-shaped calcium skeleton in which a coral polyp sits
a series of sharp ridges radiating from the center of a corallite cup
central projections from the floor of a corallite cup
a type of coral reef that forms as a border along the coast
a type of coral reef that occurs at a distance from the coast
a ring of coral reef with steep outer slopes, enclosing a shallow lagoon
what are the 3 physical requirements for coral growth?
Hard surface where larvae can settle, shallow water where light can penetrate, warm water that is not too warm
besides coral, what is another major coral contributor to reef formation, and how does it build a reef?
Coralline algae- grows over and around reefs with a hard, protective layer of calcium carbonate. Also grow over and trap soft sediments and convert them into harder sediments that help grow the reef.
identify the creatures as reef builders or reef inhabitants(soft coral, hard coral, Corinne algae, coral grouper, and crabs)
Soft coral - inhabitants, hard coral - builders, coralline algae - builders, coral grouper - inhabitant, crab - inhabitant
to what phylum and class do corals belong?
Phylum - Cnidaria, class - Anthozoa
to what subclass do soft corals belong? to what subclass do stony corals belong?
Soft corals - Octocorallia, stony corals - Hexacorallia
if a storm comes and breaks bits of corals as it goes though, how can this be helpful to the overall growth of the coral reef?
Corals can reproduce asexually when skeletal pieces are broken off. Any living polyps on the broken fragments will continue to grow and form a new colony genetically identical to the one they broke off of. The storm would spread the broken pieces throughout so they could grow in other places.
what are 2 ways coral can asexually reproduce?
Coral can asexually reproduce by producing gemmules, a tissue bulge in which skeletal material grows and eventually falls off the colony. These then grow into a new colony. Coral fragments broken off due to trauma can also grow into a new colony.
list 2 benefits of the mass spawning of corals
The mass spawning means that predators cannot possibly feed on all of the gametes and also means the spawning catches the tides at just the right time and the larvae can be spread out by currents
explain how the direction of polyp reproduction affects the growth of encrusting and boulder corals, branching corals, and fallacious corals.
The direction of the polyp reproduction affects the overall appearance of the corals based on their budding patterns. Encrusting and boulder corals bud mostly sideways or uniformly upward, covering existing hard substrates. Massive branching corals are made up of mostly vertically budded polyps. Foliacious corals use a combination. Of both horizontal and vertical directions.
what re 2 purposes of mucus movement on corals?
Corals' mucus collects zooplankton, detritus, and bacteria. The cilia 's motion then moves these particles to the corals mouth for them to feed on. The mucus is also used to capture and move sediments that block light from reaching the corals for photosynthesis.
what are 3 feeding methods can coral employ?
Corals can receive carbohydrates from zooxanthellae produced by photosynthesis, capture zooplankton and detritus with their tentacles, or capture food particles with their mucus.
name the 3 major areas of a fringing reef. which area usually has the most prolific coral growth?
Reef flat, reef crest, reef slope. The reef crest is most prolific for coral growth.
what most likely causes spur and groove on the forereef slope of a barrier reef?
Strong wind and wave movements
other than spur and groove structures, what structures on a barrier reef are not found on a fringing reef?
Back reef slope
in some parts of the ocean, there appear to be dead atolls located well beneath the surface of the ocean, how could their presence be explained?
The coral reefs of atolls are built atop extinct volcanoes, and it is now believed that varying sea levels that change with glacial cycles play a part in the formation of these corals. As sea levels rise, corals sink and new reef material can form on top. Possible that the water rose too fast for coral growth to keep up and it became too difficult to stay in the sunlight.
on which side of the atoll will you find spur and groove formations and coralline algal ridges: windward or leeward? explain why.
Windward - algae can endure the constant pressure of the waves, spur and groove are evidence of wind and strong waved on that side
why do coral reefs have a high primary production rate despite their location in nutrient-poor water?
best to zooxanthella, seaweeds are a major primary producer of a reef. what 2 actors prevent their overgrowth of the reef area?
Nutrient poor water, overeaten by herbivorous fish
if a coral has a slow growth rate, what are 2 possible ways it can attack adjacent colonies to create more space for itself?
Extend tiny filaments out of their gut and digest their neighbor, injure adjacent colonies with stinging tentacles
if a coral has a fast growth rate, how could it create more space for itself?
Can grow rapidly and branch over its neighbors and take over their access to sunlight
since soft corals do not produce an exoskeleton, what supports them?
Spicules aid soft coral in support and protection from predators.
soft corals grow much faster than hard corals. why don't they take over a coral reef?
It's easier for soft corals to get destroyed by intense waves
how does mutualistic relationships and relationships in general to create a mutual benefit make the reef more efficient as a habitat?
Symbiotic relationships, especially mutualistic, are helpful to the habitat because different species cohabitate and help each other. Mutualistic relationships heighten the reef's productivity and recycling of nutrients.
name and describe at least 3 mutualistic relationships on a coral reef.
Remoras and sharks, clownfish and sea anemones, cleaner fish and cleaner shrimp, cleaner fish/shrimp and predator fish
hard coral include _____, ________, and __________
elk horn, staghorn, and brain coral
encrusting reef and trapping sediments
middle of atoll
Forms an endosymbiotic relationship with corals and performs photosynthesis.
stinging part of coral
what are some asexual reproductive strategies of coral?
budding, gemmules, and if a piece breaks off, travels, starts a new colony
why do polyps eat their neighbors?
so they can have space, they fight for space
3 major areas of fringing reef?
reef flat, reef crest, and reef slope
why dont seaweeds overgrow the reef?
water is nutrient poor (can't overgrow) , fish eat them
The wide and shallow upper surface of a coral reef
The shallow outer edge of the reef slope of a coral reef
The outer, steep margin of a coral reef
spur and groove formation
The usual shape of a reef front, characterized by finger-like projections of coral that protrude seaward, reef projects alternating with grooved, sandy-bottomed channels.
back reef slope
which is the result of the rise of coral from the lagoon upwards toward the reef flat. the steeper the rise the less coral can grow there, because of the lack of wave movement and accusation of sediment
spur and groove is believed by marine biologists to be caused by ________ and ___________
strong winds and wave movements
atolls are ________shaped
most atolls can be found in the _____________Ocean and in some parts of the _______ Ocean
pacific and indian
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