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The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form


a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication.


The most prominent of the characters who oppose the protagonist in a narrative or drama. He/she is often a villian seeking to frustrate the protagonist, can also be a force of nature


subject matter; theme


the highest point in a series of dramatic actions, the turning point of the dramatic action at which point the outcome of the play becomes inevitable, followed by the denounement


The time and place of a story

tragic flaw

the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall


the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character

internal conflict

a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single character

external conflict

a problem or struggle between a character and someone or something outside of the character


a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work


the overall emotion created by a work of literature


the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot


the ability to form mental images of things or events


something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible


stage whisper (character talks to audience)


the main character, who must overcome obstacles and resolve the conflict

tragic hero

A literary character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy


The basic argument advanced by a speaker or writer who then attempts to prove it; the subject or major argument of a speech or composition.

verbal irony

occurs when what is said contradicts what is meant or thought

situational irony

occurs when the outcome of a work is unexpected, or events turn out to be the opposite from what one had expected

dramatic irony

(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play

topic sentence

a sentence that states the topic of its paragraph


representing an abstract quality or idea as a person or creature

1st person narration

tells story using "i"

2nd person narration

when you become involved within the plot; the narrator tells YOU whats happening to YOU

omniscient narration

If the speaker knows everything including the actions, motives, and thoughts of all the characters, the speaker is referred to as omniscient (all-knowing). If the speaker is unable to know what is in any character's mind but his or her own, this is called limited omniscience

character foil

a character that by contrast highlights or enhances the distinctive characteristics of another character

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