Causal agent: Corynebacterium diphtheria (droplet precautions)
Transmission: Contact with nasal or eye discharge or skin lesion,or, less commonly, by indirect contact with contaminated items. Unpasteurized milk has served as a vehicle
Incubation Period: 2-7 days or longer. It is communicable 2-4 weeks or until 4 days after antibiotics are started.
S/S: Low grade fever, anorexia, malaise, rhinorrhea (runny nose) with a foul odor, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, stridor or noisy breathing, cervical lymphadenitis, and pharyngitis may be present. In more severe cases the membranes of the tonsils, pharynx, and larynx are affected. A thick bluish white to grayish black patch that covers the tonsils and can spread to cover hard/soft palate. Removal results in bleeding.
complications: Produces an endotoxin that causes myocarditis and periTpheral neuropathy (diplopia, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing or paralysis of the palate)
Diagnostic test: culture from any mucosal or cutaneous lesion
Treatment: IV antitoxin (if child has been tested for sensitivity to horse serum) and antibiotics (penicillin G or erythromycin) should be initiated without waiting for lab results if diphtheria is suspected.
Prevention: vaccine. Need booster shot every 10 years
Causal agent: Human parvovirus B-19
Transmission: Respiratory secretions and blood.
S/S: Lace-like, erythematous, maculopapular rash with erythema infectiosum. Stage 1: flulike illness (HA, chills, malaise, nausea, body ache) lasting 2-3 days. A symptoms free 1-7 days.
Stage 2: fiery-red rash on the cheeks. In 1-4 days a lacelike, symmetric, erythematous, maculopapular rash appears on the trunk and limbs, spreading proximal to distal, but sparing the palms and soles. Stage 3: lasts 1-3 weeks as rash fades but can reappear if irritated or exposed to sunlight.
Diagnosis is made by physical signs or a serological test for IgM parvovirus B-19 specific antibody.
Treatment is supportive and recovery is usually spontaneous. Children with hemolytic conditions may need blood transfusions if aplastic crisis occurs.
Causal agent: Orthomyxoviridae, types A and B
Transmission: Spreads by aerosolized particles and direct contact with respiratory secretions.
Incubation period: 1-4 days. It is communicable from 1 day prior to symptoms until 5 days after onset of illness.
S/S: Abrupt onset of fever, chills, cough, runny nose, sore throat, malaise, aches, HA, and anorexia. Children may also present with croup, bronchiolitis, conjunctivitis and my have N/V and diarrhea and abdominal pain.
Diagnostic test: Viral culture, rapid antigen testing from throat or nasopharynx, polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence.
Treatment is supportive. Antiviral therapy (oseltamivir and zanamivir) may be given to children 1 year of age or older who are at high risk of complications. Zaniamivir is approved for children 5 years and older. Influenza vaccine is now recommended for infants and children over 6 months of age.
Causal agent: Neisseria meningitides, a gram-negative diplococcus
Transmission by respiratory droplets from human carriers. Majority of infections in US are caused by serogroups B, C and Y.
S/S: Abrupt onset of flulike symptoms of fever, chills, malaise, muscle aches, vomiting and prostration (extreme exhaustion). Neurological meningitis signs include drowsiness, disorientation, hallucinations, and convulsions. loss of digits or limbs is a complication due to necrosis.
Diagnostic tests: cultures of the blood and CSF. A gram stain of petechial skin scrapings may also be done.
Treatment: Penicillin G is given IV (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin are alternate antibiotics). Chloramphenicol is used for children allergic to penicillin. A vaccine has been approved for adolescents 11 years and older. a vaccine is available for children over 2 years old with asplenia and other high-risk conditions.
Causal agent: Steptococcus pneumonia, a gram-positive diplococcus.
Transmission: Respiratory secretions and droplets.
Period of Communicability: Unknown
S/S: Related to the focal area of infection. The organism causes otitis media (upper rep. infection, fever, ear pain and decreased appetite), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, pneumonia (fever, chills, chest pain, dyspnea, malaise and a productive cough), meningitis (inconsolable crying, increased irritability, lethargy, refusal to eat, N/V, diarrhea, myalgia, photophobia, and seizures), and bacteremia (unexplained fever and no localized infection site)
Diagnostic Test: bacterial culture from site of infection
Symptomatic care is provided. Antibiotic selection is based on susceptibility of organism to penicillin, macrolides and other agents. Third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftriazone) may be used. Vancomycin and rifampin are used in combination when strains are resistant to antibiotics.
Causal agent: Poliovirus is an enterovirus with three serotypes
Transmission: Primarily by the fecal-oral route, but also the respiratory route.
Incubation Period: Usually 7-10 days. Period of communicability is greatest shortly before and right after clinical symptoms develop when the virus is in the throat; excreted in feces for several weeks.
S/S: Less severe infections may be limited to fever and stiffness in the neck and back, HA, vomiting, and sore throat. In other cases, fever, HA, stiff neck, kernig or Brudzinski sign, decreased deep tendon reflexes, and progressive weakness occur. With cranial involvement their may e respiratory tract muscle paralysis.
Diagnostic Test: made by cell culture from stool or throat swabs.
Treatment is supportive. No chemotherapeutic agents that directly kill the poliovirus are available. Poliomyelitis is a vaccine-preventable disease.
Causal agent: an RNA virus, member of the family Togaviridae, genus Rubivirus.
Transmission; Droplet spread, direct contact with infected individuals, or contact with articles soiled by nasal secretions.
Incubation Period: 14.21 days. Period of communicability seven days before until 7 days after the onset of rash.
S/S: Rubella is generally a mild disease with a characteristic pink, nonconfluent, maculopapular rash. The rash appears on the face; progresses to the neck, trunk, and legs; and disappears in the same order. Prodromal symptoms occur 1-5 days before the rash and include low-grade fever, HA, malaise, coryza, sore throat, and anorexia.
Diagnostic Test: Include cell culture from a nasal swab and detection of IgM or IgG antibodies.
Treatment is supportive. Rubella is generally self-limiting in children. it is a vaccine-preventable disease.
Infection of the lung,often causing fluid accumulation in one or more lobes
Manifestations: Cough with mucus (may be bloody), Fever, Chills, Chest Pain when breathing deeply or coughing, Loss of appetite, Fatigue
Treatments: based of symptoms, Cough suppressant, expectorant, Rest, Encouraging breathing, Support for respiratory effort, which may include oxygen, Fowler position, respiratory hygiene.
Highly contagious viral respiratory disease
Manifestation: Fever over 100 degrees, Aching muscles, Chills and sweats, dry cough, fatigue and weakness, nasal congestion,
Treatment: Antipyretics, Rest, Fluid management, Monitoring for respiratory rate and pattern, and for effective airway clearance, Antiviral medications can reduce duration and severity of symptoms, Prevention through vaccination of at-risk individuals.
Chronic, recurrent infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Manifestation: Cough with mucus (may be bloody), Fever, Excessive sweating, Fatigue, Breathing difficulty, Fluid around the lungs.
Treatment: Fluid Management, monitoring of VS especially temperature, Administering antipyretics and analgesics, Antitubercular medications, Respiratory support as dictated by symptoms, Isolation.
normal range 25-35 percent. Increase in lymphocytes is call lymphocytosis caused by a chronic bacterial infection, viral infection, lymphocytic leukemia, pertussis, mononucleosis, tuberculosis. Decrease in lymphocytes is called lymphopenia caused by bone marrow depression, immunodeficiency, leukemia, cushing syndrome, Hodgkin disease, renal failure.