The term classical refers to ___ (all inclusive) that focuses on clarity, order, symmetry, balance, simplicity and refinement.
The _____ of acient Greece is generally referring to the 5th century B.CE., and the greatest and most lasting works of ancient Greece were created during this period.
The term "Minoan" was coined by the British archeologist ____ after the mythic "king" Minos.
Sir Arthur Evans
With the excavations of Sir Arthur Evans in the ____, the remains of the incredible 3-story Palace at Knossos were discovered.
The Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, was built around a courtyard sometime between ____ B.C.E.
1700 and 1300
The Palace of Minos did not have several hallways; instead, numerous rooms are connected with _____ of varying sizes and directions.
The Palace of Minos storerooms contained ____ that contained oil, grains, dried fish, beans, and olives.
The ____ was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature that was symbol of divine power and guardian of the divine.
The scenes of women and men linked to activities like fishing and flower gathering; also, the murals portray ___ feats.
Sometime around ____ B.C.E. there was an earthquake which devastated much of Minoan civilization.
The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archeological site Mycenae in the ___ of southern Greece.
A number of Mycenaean cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a ____.
The major concept and focus that sets the Greek epics apart from other ancient literary works is the ___ focus.
Ancient ____ society was humanistic, which is a believe in the idea that humans have great potential and are capable of extraordinary things.
River that formed the boundary between earth and the underworld, Hades, where Thetis dipped Achilles to make him immortal.
Brother of Zeus, lord of the underworld,ruling over the dead, god of wealth that wears a helmet that makes him invisible.
Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter who was abducted by Hades and forced to be his queen six months of the year.
Zeus and Leto daughter, Apollo's twin sister, protector of the young, like Apollo she hunts with silver arrows, associated with the moon.
Daughter of Zeus, only fights to to protect the state and home from outside enemies, goddess of the city, handcrafting, agriculture, wisdom,reason, purity.
Son of Zeus and Semele (mortal), was killed, dismembered, and resurrected, god of fertility, wine, and revelry.
Some said she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, wife of Hephaestus, the Myrtle is her tree.
Type of writing, (hieroglyphic script), deciphered in the 1950's that was used for bureaucratic and administrative purposes.
West's first historical narrative as well as the first major literary work written in prose by Herodotus, first known as "Western work oh history".
History of the Persian Wars
All of the city- states had contributed to expelling the Persians, but ____ claimed the crown of victory.
Ancient Greece was organized as city-states, (like Mesopotamia), and a city-state was called a ___.
At the end of the Persian Wars, Athens was the leader of the Greek city-states, unchallenged master of the sea, leading in commercial power, although ____ remained a serous rival.
A form of democracy in which the people as a whole make direct decisions, rather than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives. (created in Athens)
Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that ____, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens".
Very small island, considered sacred since it was reported to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, where the Greek city-states kept the funds that they all contributed in case of future invasions. (after the Persian Wars ended)
By the mid 5th century the Delian League had beciome an Athenian empire, this happened with the transfer of the league's treasury from Delos to the Parthenon in Athens in ___.
By 431 B.C.E., with Athens in position of authority, Sparta waged war on Athens, which initiated the ____.
Largest polis in the Greek world; also very conservative, ruled by oligarchy, more warrior-like, all male citizens age 7 and up were trained as soldiers.
Usually credited with the creation of tragedy, also commonly thought to have been the first person to step out of the chorus and assume a character.
Drama as we know it it was first presented at the ___, which was a festival commemorating the coming of Dionysus to Athens, always held late March (planting season), civic religious festival open to entire Greek society.
During City Dionysian festival, 5 days were devoted to performances: each playwright presented a _____.
Provides information about events that have occurred prior to the opening of the play (exposition)
Entrance of the chorus, introduces the chorus, give exposition, establish the proper mood. There is then an alternation of episodes and stasima.
Dramatic scenes which develop the main action. From these episodes we get a series of scenes in contemporary drama.
Choral songs or odes that separate the episodes. The chorus comments on the action that has just happened and/or gives the audience an idea of what is about to happen.
Greek drama was not meant to be what we would consider ____, it was very poetic and highly stylized.
In all forms of drama, the ____ normally made it's entrance after the prologue and remained until the end of the play.
All the surviving Greek plays were probably first presented at ______, built next to the Temple of Dionysus.
Theatre of Dionysus in Athens
Literally, "dancing place", a large circular playing area where the chorus performed the satsuma.
Altar in the middle of the orchestra, which was the very indication of the connection between drama and religion.
Scene building; means "hut" or "tent", probably originally a temporary structure used as a dressing room; later it was incorporated into the action of the play.
The place where the chorus enters between the skene and the orchestra; this is the same name as the entrance of the chorus in the structure of the play.
The theatron and the skene were always _____, separated by the orchestra.
separate architectural units
We aren't entirely sure when the Greeks began using _____; Aristotle credits Sophocles with inventing ___.
Very little ___ was used by the Greeks; they did use painted wooden panels or triangular prismatic structures, but major ___ wasn't really necessary because they usually take place in only one location.
Painted panels similar to flats, that were attached to the scene building and changed as needed; made out of wood.
Triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each side, and were rotated to change the scene.
A platform rolled out through the central doorway of the skene, seed for reveling dead bodies.
Greek tragedies did not show actual violence or death on stage; deaths are usually reported and described by a ___ or other characters.
Crane used to show cgharacters in flight or suspended above the earth; most often used the appearance of gods.
god from a machine; overuse of the mechane led to the use of this term to describe any contrive ending.
deus ex machine
For extant playwrights:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (all tragic playwrights), and Aristophanes (comic)
The protagonist in Greek tragedy always has a _____: tragic flaw (something that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow).
The most common tragic flaw in classical Greek tragedy is ___. (excessive pride or arrogance; in the face of the gods)
(384-322 B.C.E.) served as tutor to Alexander the Graet; his "Poetics" may have possibly been written in response to Plato, used to be Plato's student.
Felt that theatre stirred up dangerous emotions, he felt that the state should abolish thetare if not controll it.
May have been lectures notes; "first Western dramatic criticism" work; had tremendous impact on drama and theatre in the West.
Catharsis: Aristitle felt that theatre was good for society; we actually purge negative emotions through the characters.
(495-406 B.C.E.) born in 495 B.C.E. about a mile northwest of Athens; also an actor, was to become one of the greatest playwrights of the Golden Age.