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132 terms

Humanities Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
The artistic style that appear in ancient Greece and Rome is referred to as ____.
classical
The term classical refers to ___ (all inclusive) that focuses on clarity, order, symmetry, balance, simplicity and refinement.
art
The "classical" approach is generally ___ based.
intellectually
The opposite of the classical style is the _____ style which is focused on emotion.
romantic
The _____ of acient Greece is generally referring to the 5th century B.CE., and the greatest and most lasting works of ancient Greece were created during this period.
Classical Age
Minoan culture developed on the island of ___ in the Aegean Sea.
Crete
Ca. 2000-1400 B.C.E. (civilization)
Minoan
The term "Minoan" was coined by the British archeologist ____ after the mythic "king" Minos.
Sir Arthur Evans
Minoan civilization was centered in ____.
Knossos
With the excavations of Sir Arthur Evans in the ____, the remains of the incredible 3-story Palace at Knossos were discovered.
1920
The Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, was built around a courtyard sometime between ____ B.C.E.
1700 and 1300
The Palace of Minos did not have several hallways; instead, numerous rooms are connected with _____ of varying sizes and directions.
corridors
The Palace of Minos encompassed six acres; it included a ___ and extensive storerooms.
theatre
The Palace of Minos storerooms contained ____ that contained oil, grains, dried fish, beans, and olives.
pithoi
Beneath the pithoi were stone holes used to store more valuable objects, such as ___.
gold
The ______ found at Knossos are decorative and celebrated nature.
frescos
The ____ was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature that was symbol of divine power and guardian of the divine.
griffin
Traditionally considered the "king of the beasts".
lion
Tradiotionally considered "the king of the birds".
eagle
The scenes of women and men linked to activities like fishing and flower gathering; also, the murals portray ___ feats.
athletic
Ancient symbol of virility.
bull
Sometime around ____ B.C.E. there was an earthquake which devastated much of Minoan civilization.
1700
Ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E. civilization
Mycenaean
The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archeological site Mycenae in the ___ of southern Greece.
Peloponnesus
The Mycenaeans were much more ___ than the Minoans.
militaristic
Mycenaean civilization was the last phase of _____ Greece.
Bronza Age
Mycenae is the historical setting of the epic of ___ and much other Greek mythology.
Homer
The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs called ____.
tholoi
Around ____ B.C.E. the Mycenaean civilization collapsed.
1200
A number of Mycenaean cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a ____.
dark age
Ca. 1200-750 B.C.E.
Heroic Age
Around 1200 B.C.E. the _____ basically destroyed Mycenaean civilization.
Dorians
During the "dark age" what keep much of history alive was the ____ tradition.
oral
The Dorians were a tribe of Greeks from the north who developed ____ weapons.
iron
The ____ deals with events during the last year in the siege of the city of Troy.
Iliad
Iliad is also known as ____.
Illion
The ___ deals with Odysseus' 10-year journey home after the Trojan War.
Odyssey
Greek hero Odysseus homeland.
Ithaca
The major concept and focus that sets the Greek epics apart from other ancient literary works is the ___ focus.
humanistic
Ancient ____ society was humanistic, which is a believe in the idea that humans have great potential and are capable of extraordinary things.
Greek
Greek works hero, son of the mortal Peleus.
Achilles
Mortal King of the Myrmidons
Peleus
Sea nymph, mother of Achilles
Thetis
River that formed the boundary between earth and the underworld, Hades, where Thetis dipped Achilles to make him immortal.
Styx
Greeks conceived of their gods in human terms.
anthropomorphic
Overthrew his father Cronus, and is lord of the sky and rain god; his weapon is a thunderbolt.
Zeus
Zeus wife and sister, protector of marriage and married women.
Hera
Brother of Zeus, lord of the sea, worshipped by seamen, his weapon is a trident.
Poseidon
Brother of Zeus, lord of the underworld,ruling over the dead, god of wealth that wears a helmet that makes him invisible.
Hades
Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter who was abducted by Hades and forced to be his queen six months of the year.
Persephone
Son of Zeus and Leto, god of music, healing and taught humans medicine, light, truth.
Apollo
Zeus and Leto daughter, Apollo's twin sister, protector of the young, like Apollo she hunts with silver arrows, associated with the moon.
Artemis
Animal sacred to Artemis.
deer
Daughter of Zeus, only fights to to protect the state and home from outside enemies, goddess of the city, handcrafting, agriculture, wisdom,reason, purity.
Athena
Son of Zeus and Hera; he was disliked by both parents; god of war.
Ares
Son of Zeus and Semele (mortal), was killed, dismembered, and resurrected, god of fertility, wine, and revelry.
Dionysus
Some said she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, wife of Hephaestus, the Myrtle is her tree.
Aphrodite
Greek vessel used for storing wine or oil.
amphora
Leg armor worn below the knee.
greaves
Bronze Age Civilizations of the Aegean ca. ____ - ____ B.C.E.
3000-1200
Most famous of the Palace of Minos fresco.
bull leaping
Type of writing, (hieroglyphic script), deciphered in the 1950's that was used for bureaucratic and administrative purposes.
linear B
"the father of history", wrote extensively about the Persian Wars.
Herodotus
hallucinogen
hemp
West's first historical narrative as well as the first major literary work written in prose by Herodotus, first known as "Western work oh history".
History of the Persian Wars
Ca. 480-430 B.C.E. Athens and Greek
Greek Golden Age
All of the city- states had contributed to expelling the Persians, but ____ claimed the crown of victory.
Athens
government controlled by an elite minority.
oligarchy
Ancient Greece was organized as city-states, (like Mesopotamia), and a city-state was called a ___.
polis
The main rivalry between the city-states wad dominance of ____.
trade
The end of the Persian Wars when Greece ultimately defeated Persia at Salamis.
480 B.C.E.
At the end of the Persian Wars, Athens was the leader of the Greek city-states, unchallenged master of the sea, leading in commercial power, although ____ remained a serous rival.
Corinth
The beginning of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.
431 B.C.E.
Statesman, poet, legislator that enter power in ___.
ca. 638-558 B.C.E.
In ___ B.C.E. the Athenian government asked Solon to rewrite laws for the city-states.
594
It was in ___ B.C.E. that Athens formed the world's first democracy.
508
A form of democracy in which the people as a whole make direct decisions, rather than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives. (created in Athens)
direct
The US is based on a ___ democracy.
representative
Only ___ adult male Athenians had the right to vote in Athens
land-owning
The leading proponent of democracy in the Golden Age was ____.
Pericles
Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that ____, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens".
Thucydides
Very small island, considered sacred since it was reported to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, where the Greek city-states kept the funds that they all contributed in case of future invasions. (after the Persian Wars ended)
Delos
After the Persian Wars ended, the ____ was formed.
Delian League
By the mid 5th century the Delian League had beciome an Athenian empire, this happened with the transfer of the league's treasury from Delos to the Parthenon in Athens in ___.
454 B.C.E.
By 431 B.C.E., with Athens in position of authority, Sparta waged war on Athens, which initiated the ____.
Peloponnesian War
Largest polis in the Greek world; also very conservative, ruled by oligarchy, more warrior-like, all male citizens age 7 and up were trained as soldiers.
Sparta
The peloponessian war enede in ___ B.C.E.
404
Originally, ___ were an important part of Dyonysian rituals, hymn sung and danced.
dithyrambs
Dithyrambs were ___, literally sound againtst sound.
antiphonal
Usually credited with the creation of tragedy, also commonly thought to have been the first person to step out of the chorus and assume a character.
Thespis
Drama as we know it it was first presented at the ___, which was a festival commemorating the coming of Dionysus to Athens, always held late March (planting season), civic religious festival open to entire Greek society.
City Dionysia
During City Dionysian festival, 5 days were devoted to performances: each playwright presented a _____.
tetralogy
Of the hundreds of plays written in the Greek Golden Age, only __ survive.
44
All of the existing Greek tragedies are based on ____________.
Greek mythology and history
Ancient Greek drama has a ________.
humanistic focus.
Provides information about events that have occurred prior to the opening of the play (exposition)
prologos:prologue
Entrance of the chorus, introduces the chorus, give exposition, establish the proper mood. There is then an alternation of episodes and stasima.
parados: parade
Dramatic scenes which develop the main action. From these episodes we get a series of scenes in contemporary drama.
episodes
Choral songs or odes that separate the episodes. The chorus comments on the action that has just happened and/or gives the audience an idea of what is about to happen.
stasima
Concluding scene. All characters of the chorus leave the stage.
exodus
Greek drama was not meant to be what we would consider ____, it was very poetic and highly stylized.
naturalistic
In all forms of drama, the ____ normally made it's entrance after the prologue and remained until the end of the play.
chorus
Greek drama is the earliest form of ____ theatre.
musical
All the surviving Greek plays were probably first presented at ______, built next to the Temple of Dionysus.
Theatre of Dionysus in Athens
Literally, "seeing place"
theatron
Literally, "dancing place", a large circular playing area where the chorus performed the satsuma.
orchestra
Altar in the middle of the orchestra, which was the very indication of the connection between drama and religion.
thymele
Scene building; means "hut" or "tent", probably originally a temporary structure used as a dressing room; later it was incorporated into the action of the play.
skene
The place where the chorus enters between the skene and the orchestra; this is the same name as the entrance of the chorus in the structure of the play.
parados
The theatron and the skene were always _____, separated by the orchestra.
separate architectural units
We aren't entirely sure when the Greeks began using _____; Aristotle credits Sophocles with inventing ___.
painted scenery
Very little ___ was used by the Greeks; they did use painted wooden panels or triangular prismatic structures, but major ___ wasn't really necessary because they usually take place in only one location.
scenery
Painted panels similar to flats, that were attached to the scene building and changed as needed; made out of wood.
pinakes
Triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each side, and were rotated to change the scene.
periaktol
A platform rolled out through the central doorway of the skene, seed for reveling dead bodies.
ekkyklema
Greek tragedies did not show actual violence or death on stage; deaths are usually reported and described by a ___ or other characters.
messenger
Crane used to show cgharacters in flight or suspended above the earth; most often used the appearance of gods.
mechane
god from a machine; overuse of the mechane led to the use of this term to describe any contrive ending.
deus ex machine
Front row seats for government officials, religious officials and dignitaries.
prohedria
For extant playwrights:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (all tragic playwrights), and Aristophanes (comic)
The protagonist in Greek tragedy always has a _____: tragic flaw (something that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow).
hamartia
The most common tragic flaw in classical Greek tragedy is ___. (excessive pride or arrogance; in the face of the gods)
hubris
(384-322 B.C.E.) served as tutor to Alexander the Graet; his "Poetics" may have possibly been written in response to Plato, used to be Plato's student.
Aristotle
Felt that theatre stirred up dangerous emotions, he felt that the state should abolish thetare if not controll it.
Plato
May have been lectures notes; "first Western dramatic criticism" work; had tremendous impact on drama and theatre in the West.
The Poetics
Beginning, middle, end; not all plays have a beginning, middle, and end.
complete
Issues are important; cosmic; high stakes
certain magnitude
Catharsis: Aristitle felt that theatre was good for society; we actually purge negative emotions through the characters.
purgation
Empathy for people who suffer undeservedly.
pity
Aristotle's definition of tragedy is based on ____. (imitation of an action)
mimesis
(495-406 B.C.E.) born in 495 B.C.E. about a mile northwest of Athens; also an actor, was to become one of the greatest playwrights of the Golden Age.
Sophocles
Sophocles was the first to add a third actor in 468B.C.E.; reduced the role of the chorus and served on the ____, a comitte that oversaw civil and military affairs in Athens.
Board of Generals