The artistic style that appear in ancient Greece and Rome is referred to as ____.
The term classical refers to ___ (all inclusive) that focuses on clarity, order, symmetry, balance, simplicity and refinement.
The "classical" approach is generally ___ based.
The opposite of the classical style is the _____ style which is focused on emotion.
The _____ of acient Greece is generally referring to the 5th century B.CE., and the greatest and most lasting works of ancient Greece were created during this period.
Minoan culture developed on the island of ___ in the Aegean Sea.
Ca. 2000-1400 B.C.E. (civilization)
The term "Minoan" was coined by the British archeologist ____ after the mythic "king" Minos.
Sir Arthur Evans
Minoan civilization was centered in ____.
With the excavations of Sir Arthur Evans in the ____, the remains of the incredible 3-story Palace at Knossos were discovered.
The Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, was built around a courtyard sometime between ____ B.C.E.
1700 and 1300
The Palace of Minos did not have several hallways; instead, numerous rooms are connected with _____ of varying sizes and directions.
The Palace of Minos encompassed six acres; it included a ___ and extensive storerooms.
The Palace of Minos storerooms contained ____ that contained oil, grains, dried fish, beans, and olives.
Beneath the pithoi were stone holes used to store more valuable objects, such as ___.
The ______ found at Knossos are decorative and celebrated nature.
The ____ was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature that was symbol of divine power and guardian of the divine.
Traditionally considered the "king of the beasts".
Tradiotionally considered "the king of the birds".
The scenes of women and men linked to activities like fishing and flower gathering; also, the murals portray ___ feats.
Ancient symbol of virility.
Sometime around ____ B.C.E. there was an earthquake which devastated much of Minoan civilization.
Ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E. civilization
The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archeological site Mycenae in the ___ of southern Greece.
The Mycenaeans were much more ___ than the Minoans.
Mycenaean civilization was the last phase of _____ Greece.
Mycenae is the historical setting of the epic of ___ and much other Greek mythology.
The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs called ____.
Around ____ B.C.E. the Mycenaean civilization collapsed.
A number of Mycenaean cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a ____.
Ca. 1200-750 B.C.E.
Around 1200 B.C.E. the _____ basically destroyed Mycenaean civilization.
During the "dark age" what keep much of history alive was the ____ tradition.
The Dorians were a tribe of Greeks from the north who developed ____ weapons.
The ____ deals with events during the last year in the siege of the city of Troy.
Iliad is also known as ____.
The ___ deals with Odysseus' 10-year journey home after the Trojan War.
Greek hero Odysseus homeland.
The major concept and focus that sets the Greek epics apart from other ancient literary works is the ___ focus.
Ancient ____ society was humanistic, which is a believe in the idea that humans have great potential and are capable of extraordinary things.
Greek works hero, son of the mortal Peleus.
Mortal King of the Myrmidons
Sea nymph, mother of Achilles
River that formed the boundary between earth and the underworld, Hades, where Thetis dipped Achilles to make him immortal.
Greeks conceived of their gods in human terms.
Overthrew his father Cronus, and is lord of the sky and rain god; his weapon is a thunderbolt.
Zeus wife and sister, protector of marriage and married women.
Brother of Zeus, lord of the sea, worshipped by seamen, his weapon is a trident.
Brother of Zeus, lord of the underworld,ruling over the dead, god of wealth that wears a helmet that makes him invisible.
Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter who was abducted by Hades and forced to be his queen six months of the year.
Son of Zeus and Leto, god of music, healing and taught humans medicine, light, truth.
Zeus and Leto daughter, Apollo's twin sister, protector of the young, like Apollo she hunts with silver arrows, associated with the moon.
Animal sacred to Artemis.
Daughter of Zeus, only fights to to protect the state and home from outside enemies, goddess of the city, handcrafting, agriculture, wisdom,reason, purity.
Son of Zeus and Hera; he was disliked by both parents; god of war.
Son of Zeus and Semele (mortal), was killed, dismembered, and resurrected, god of fertility, wine, and revelry.
Some said she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, wife of Hephaestus, the Myrtle is her tree.
Greek vessel used for storing wine or oil.
Leg armor worn below the knee.
Bronze Age Civilizations of the Aegean ca. ____ - ____ B.C.E.
Most famous of the Palace of Minos fresco.
Type of writing, (hieroglyphic script), deciphered in the 1950's that was used for bureaucratic and administrative purposes.
"the father of history", wrote extensively about the Persian Wars.
West's first historical narrative as well as the first major literary work written in prose by Herodotus, first known as "Western work oh history".
History of the Persian Wars
Ca. 480-430 B.C.E. Athens and Greek
Greek Golden Age
All of the city- states had contributed to expelling the Persians, but ____ claimed the crown of victory.
government controlled by an elite minority.
Ancient Greece was organized as city-states, (like Mesopotamia), and a city-state was called a ___.
The main rivalry between the city-states wad dominance of ____.
The end of the Persian Wars when Greece ultimately defeated Persia at Salamis.
At the end of the Persian Wars, Athens was the leader of the Greek city-states, unchallenged master of the sea, leading in commercial power, although ____ remained a serous rival.
The beginning of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.
Statesman, poet, legislator that enter power in ___.
ca. 638-558 B.C.E.
In ___ B.C.E. the Athenian government asked Solon to rewrite laws for the city-states.
It was in ___ B.C.E. that Athens formed the world's first democracy.
A form of democracy in which the people as a whole make direct decisions, rather than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives. (created in Athens)
The US is based on a ___ democracy.
Only ___ adult male Athenians had the right to vote in Athens
The leading proponent of democracy in the Golden Age was ____.
Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that ____, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens".
Very small island, considered sacred since it was reported to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, where the Greek city-states kept the funds that they all contributed in case of future invasions. (after the Persian Wars ended)
After the Persian Wars ended, the ____ was formed.
By the mid 5th century the Delian League had beciome an Athenian empire, this happened with the transfer of the league's treasury from Delos to the Parthenon in Athens in ___.
By 431 B.C.E., with Athens in position of authority, Sparta waged war on Athens, which initiated the ____.
Largest polis in the Greek world; also very conservative, ruled by oligarchy, more warrior-like, all male citizens age 7 and up were trained as soldiers.
The peloponessian war enede in ___ B.C.E.
Originally, ___ were an important part of Dyonysian rituals, hymn sung and danced.
Dithyrambs were ___, literally sound againtst sound.
Usually credited with the creation of tragedy, also commonly thought to have been the first person to step out of the chorus and assume a character.
Drama as we know it it was first presented at the ___, which was a festival commemorating the coming of Dionysus to Athens, always held late March (planting season), civic religious festival open to entire Greek society.
During City Dionysian festival, 5 days were devoted to performances: each playwright presented a _____.
Of the hundreds of plays written in the Greek Golden Age, only __ survive.
All of the existing Greek tragedies are based on ____________.
Greek mythology and history
Ancient Greek drama has a ________.
Provides information about events that have occurred prior to the opening of the play (exposition)
Entrance of the chorus, introduces the chorus, give exposition, establish the proper mood. There is then an alternation of episodes and stasima.
Dramatic scenes which develop the main action. From these episodes we get a series of scenes in contemporary drama.
Choral songs or odes that separate the episodes. The chorus comments on the action that has just happened and/or gives the audience an idea of what is about to happen.
Concluding scene. All characters of the chorus leave the stage.
Greek drama was not meant to be what we would consider ____, it was very poetic and highly stylized.
In all forms of drama, the ____ normally made it's entrance after the prologue and remained until the end of the play.
Greek drama is the earliest form of ____ theatre.
All the surviving Greek plays were probably first presented at ______, built next to the Temple of Dionysus.
Theatre of Dionysus in Athens
Literally, "seeing place"
Literally, "dancing place", a large circular playing area where the chorus performed the satsuma.
Altar in the middle of the orchestra, which was the very indication of the connection between drama and religion.
Scene building; means "hut" or "tent", probably originally a temporary structure used as a dressing room; later it was incorporated into the action of the play.
The place where the chorus enters between the skene and the orchestra; this is the same name as the entrance of the chorus in the structure of the play.
The theatron and the skene were always _____, separated by the orchestra.
separate architectural units
We aren't entirely sure when the Greeks began using _____; Aristotle credits Sophocles with inventing ___.
Very little ___ was used by the Greeks; they did use painted wooden panels or triangular prismatic structures, but major ___ wasn't really necessary because they usually take place in only one location.
Painted panels similar to flats, that were attached to the scene building and changed as needed; made out of wood.
Triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each side, and were rotated to change the scene.
A platform rolled out through the central doorway of the skene, seed for reveling dead bodies.
Greek tragedies did not show actual violence or death on stage; deaths are usually reported and described by a ___ or other characters.
Crane used to show cgharacters in flight or suspended above the earth; most often used the appearance of gods.
god from a machine; overuse of the mechane led to the use of this term to describe any contrive ending.
deus ex machine
Front row seats for government officials, religious officials and dignitaries.
For extant playwrights:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (all tragic playwrights), and Aristophanes (comic)
The protagonist in Greek tragedy always has a _____: tragic flaw (something that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow).
The most common tragic flaw in classical Greek tragedy is ___. (excessive pride or arrogance; in the face of the gods)
(384-322 B.C.E.) served as tutor to Alexander the Graet; his "Poetics" may have possibly been written in response to Plato, used to be Plato's student.
Felt that theatre stirred up dangerous emotions, he felt that the state should abolish thetare if not controll it.
May have been lectures notes; "first Western dramatic criticism" work; had tremendous impact on drama and theatre in the West.
Beginning, middle, end; not all plays have a beginning, middle, and end.
Issues are important; cosmic; high stakes
Catharsis: Aristitle felt that theatre was good for society; we actually purge negative emotions through the characters.
Empathy for people who suffer undeservedly.
Aristotle's definition of tragedy is based on ____. (imitation of an action)
(495-406 B.C.E.) born in 495 B.C.E. about a mile northwest of Athens; also an actor, was to become one of the greatest playwrights of the Golden Age.
Sophocles was the first to add a third actor in 468B.C.E.; reduced the role of the chorus and served on the ____, a comitte that oversaw civil and military affairs in Athens.