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These are the vocab words and the people ,along with the major things that those people did, in chapter 7.


plan of government




a government in which the citizens rule through elected representatives

Articles of Confederation

America's first constitution; adopted in November 1777; Congress lacked power to impose tax, force citizens to join army, and regulate trade


apply to



Northwest Territory

single region of land created by Northwest Ordinance of 1787 located north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River; land divided into 3 to 5 smaller territories that, when reached a population of 60,000, could apply for statehood


fall in value

Robert Morris

Philadelphia merchant; 1781 - proposed a 5 percent tax on imported goods to help pay national debt - Rhode Island opposed

John Adams

1785 - Congress sent him to London to discuss difficulties with Britain regarding tradeand occupation in America


a period when economic activity slow and unemployment rates increase

Daniel Shays

former Continental Army catptain - Saratoga, Bunker Hill, Ticonderoga; Jan 1787 - led more than 1,000 farmerms toward federal arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts; four rebels killed; lost - captured

Shays's Rebellion

frightened many Americans; worried government couldd not control unrest and prevent violence

George Washington about Shays's Rebellion

"mankind, when left to themselves, are unfit for their own government"

Thomas Jefferson about Shays's Rebellion

"A little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing"


the freeing of individual enslaved persons

James Madison

Virginia planter; father of Consitution; came up with Virginia plan but Randolph propsed it

Alexander Hamiltion

New York lawyer; proposed calling a convention in Philadelphia to discuss trade issues; also suggested that convetion consider what changes were needed to make "the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies [needs] of the Union."


corresponding in size

Virgina Plan

proposed by Edmund Randolph; based on works of James Madison; called for two-house legislature, cheif executive branch chosen by legislature, and court system; lower house of legislautre elected by people, upper house elected by lower house; representation in legislature based on state population; known as "big state plan"

New Jersey Plan

William Patterson; one house legislature; one vote per state; changed Articles - weak executive branch, Congress could set taxes and regulate trade; known as "little state plan"

Roger Sherman

Connecticut; created Great Compromise

Great Compromise

two-house legislature; lower house, House of Reps, based on population, upper house, Senate - two seats per state


agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants

Three-Fifths Compromise

Enslaved persons would be worth 3/5 a person in taxation and representation

"I consent to this Constitution because I expect no better, and because I am not sure, that it is not the best."

Benjamin Franklin


movement of 1700s that promoted knowledge, reason, and science as means to improve society

John Locke

Two Treatises of Civil Government - government based on agreement between people and ruler; all people have natural rights: life, liberty, property

Baron de Montesquieu

The Spirit of Laws - powers of government should be separated and balanced against each other


sharing of power between the federal and state governments



legislative branch

lawmaking branch

executive branch

headed by president; carries out nation's laws and policies

Electoral College

presidential electors; cast their votes for president and vice president

judicial branch

court system

checks and balances

the three branches of government have roles that check, or limit, the others so that no single branch can dominate the government




supporters of Constitution


opposers of Constitution

Mercy Otis Warren

antifederalist; "We have struggled for liberty and made costly sacrifices... and there are still many among us who [value liberty] too much to relinquish.. the rights of man for the dignity of government"



Patrick Henry

antifederalist; said Constitution limited power of federal government

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