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Politics of the United States
Jordan AP Gov Chapter 12
Terms in this set (133)
Where in the Constitution is the presidency outlined?
Article II is not very long.
Requirements for the presidency:
1. The president must be born a natural citizen.
2. The president must be at least 35 years old.
3. The president must have been a resident in the U.S. for 14 years.
What is the current presidential salary?
What does it mean that the President is the Commander in Chief?
He is the leader of the Armed Forces.
While the president can make treaties, who needs to approve them?
T/F The President can receive ambassadors.
When can the president be removed from office?
If they are convicted of a crime during impeachment.
Why has the Constitution lasted as long as it has?
Because it is vague.
How are presidents defined for the most part?
By how they react to the crises they face.
Why did the framers have a mammoth job?
The Framers had to create a government never seen before, as most of the developed world ruled under monarchy.
Philosophers that inspired Jefferson to write the Constitution:
1. John Locke.
2. Thomas Hobbs.
T/F The framers were very unaware of how the President would rule.
What was the biggest issue with the Articles of Confederation?
It gave to little power to the federal government.
What did federalists and anti-federalists want?
Federalists wanted more power to the central government, but anti-federalists want the opposite.
What was the dilemma of the framers?
Balancing a string national leadership with no tyrannical rule.
Why does Article II make easy conflicts about the powers of presidency?
Because it explains the powers in a very vague way.
Reasons the Constitution was written vaguely:
1. So it can change with the times.
2. So it can be interpreted in different ways.
3. Because the framers didn't know how much power to give the government and the people.
4. Because there was no model to copy.
5. Because the Framers wrote the Constitution knowing that Washington would be the first president.
Who technically has the power to declare war?
When was the last time there was an official declaration of war?
What is the War Powers Resolution?
A law that gives Congress control of when troops leave and return home.
While the president can make treaties, who approves them?
T/F The president cannot approve or veto a law.
False, they can.
What does it mean to say that the president is Chief Administrator?
They are in charge of the federal government.
Officials that the president can appoint:
1. Federal judges.
2. Cabinet members.
4. The U.S. Attorney.
What is the U.S. Attorney?
The group that prosecutes federal crimes.
What does it mean to say that the president is the Chief of State?
They are the ceremonial head of Government.
What does it mean to say that the president is the Chief Executive?
He is the head of the executive branch.
What does it mean to say that the president is the Chief Diplomat?
He meets with other countries.
What does the First Family represent?
The families in America.
What does it mean to say that the president is the Chief Citizen?
He is the gold standard of American citizens.
How long is a president's term and how many terms can a president serve?
4 years, 2
What is the term limit for a president?
What is the 22nd Amendment and when was it added?
An amendment added in 1951 that set a two term limit for president.
What is the presidential expense?
T/F The president also lived in the White House for free and has many perks.
How long do presidents have secret service?
For life, even after their presidency.
T/F The crisis a president goes through could define their presidency and legacy.
T/F: People tend to be meaner to presidents and their campaigns when looking back.
When was FDR's term?
March 1933-April 1945
What were FDR's Biggest crises?
The Great Depression and WWII
Many laws that FDR passed were laws that Hoover tried to pass while in presidency. Why was FDR able to pass these laws?
Because of his personality.
What is FDR best known for?
Serving 4 years.
T/F Although FDR wasn't intelligent, he was a great social person.
When was Harry Truman's term?
He was FDR's VP.
What is Truman best known for?
Making the call to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What was the Marshall Plan?
Truman's plan to send money to help Europe rebuild and restructure.
What massive group did Truman desegregate?
The Armed Forces.
When did China fall to Communism?
How long was the Korean War?
Truman was President as the time.
What conflict also begun during Truman's presidency?
The Vietnam War.
What country was helping South Vietnam before the U.S., and why did they need to pull out?
France, They did not have the money to send troops as France was still restructuring from Nazi rule.
How long was Eisenhower's term?
What was Eisenhower famous for?
What is the Federal Highway Act?
A law that Eisenhower passed to create transcontinental highways.
Was passed during the Cold War when Eisenhower asked how to transport weapons faster.
How was Eisenhower a key player in Little Rock Nine?
He sent the Army to counter the Federal Guard.
What country fell to Communism during Eisenhower's presidency? Why was this bad for America?
Cuba, because Communism was closer to the U.S. than ever.
When was Kennedy elected?
What two military conflicts was Kennedy responsible for?
The Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
What group did Kennedy create? What do they do?
The Peace Corps, where people are sent across the world to promote peace.
Kennedy was also very involved in the space programs.
T/F Despite how idolized Kennedy is, he really didn't do much in his term.
What are inherent powers?
Powers not specifically given to the president, but a power based on interpretation of the Constitution.
Who is usually needed to enforce inherent powers?
Why do presidents use executive orders?
To pass and change laws without having to go through Congress.
What branch has the power to declare executive orders unconstitutional?
The Supreme Court.
What determines how a president interprets the Constitution?
For example, a president with high charisma will most likely have an easier time passing laws.
Reasons presidential power has increased:
1. Major crises.
3. Terrorist attacks.
4. The mass media.
Which branch of government only has one leader?
The Executive Branch
People that make up the President's executive office:
1. Personal staff.
2. Executive aids.
3. The Chief of staff.
4. National security.
5. Economic powers.
What determines the power of the chief of staff?
How the president governs.
How did FDR govern his staff?
He used a competitive management styles, where he would. Are a decision after hearing different points of view.
How did Eisenhower govern his staff?
He used a hierarchical model, most likely due to his military background.
How did Clinton govern his staff?
He used a collegial style, which had less structure.
What powers does the U.S. Constitution give the Vice President?
Being the President of the Senate and to decide the question of presidential disability.
What does the 25th Amendment state and when was it passed?
The 25th Amendment of 1967 made it so that the Vice President takes over the President in period of leave.
This was always the case, but never set in stone in the Constitution.
What happens if there is an opening in the Vice Presidency?
The president selects a candidate and the President must approve it.
Where does it state that the President must write a letter to Congress saying that the Vice President will take over during a time of leave?
Section 3 of the 25th Amendment
What does Section 4 of the 25th Amendment state?
That if the cabinet feels like the president is not fit to preside in office, the majority of the cabinet could write a letter and remove the president by force.
Presidential order of succession:
2. Vice President.
3. Speaker of the House.
4. President Pro Tempore.
5. Secretary of State.
6. Secretary of Treasury.
7. Secretary of Defense.
8. Attorney General.
9. Other members of the cabinet, in order of when they were added.
10. Homeland security.
What is a State of the Union address?
When everyone in government gathers at the Capital floor.
What is a Designated Survivor?
Someone who is sent away from the government in case of tragedy.
When was Johnson's term?
Why did Lyndon Johnson chose to not run for office in 1968?
Some believe it was because the stress of Vietnam.
T/F The press knew about Johnson's leave.
False, When the president addresses a nation, the press usually gets a copy of what the president will say. This was an instance that was not written down.
What laws were Johnson were responsible for?
1. The Civil Rights Act.
2. The Voting Rights Act.
3. The War on Poverty.
How did most people feel about Vietnam?
Most people were against government involvement in Vietnam.
Why was it rumored that Johnson did not pull out of Vietnam?
He did not want to look like a coward to the American people.
Why was Nixon rumored to cause Watergate?
Because he had an exaggerated fear of his enemies.
Despite being the least offensive charge, what did the Clinton scandal represent?
While no one felt he should've been impeached, many began to question Nixon's character.
House voted to impeach, but Senate did not approve; Clinton had a good character, so he was able to get passed his scandal.
personality traits that scholars think a president should have:
1. Strong self-esteem.
2. Emotional intelligence.
3. interpersonal and practical political skills.
What was Richard Neustaft model
His initial premise is simple enough: "Presidential power is the power to persuade."21 Presidents, for all their resources—a skilled staff, extensive media coverage of presi- dential actions, the great respect the country holds for the office—must depend on others' cooperation to get things done.
What was Nixon's term?
Nixon political background before presidency?
1. Eisenhower's Vice-President.
2. Almost won the 1960 election against Kennedy.
3. Governor of California.
What was Nixon's personality?
He was very paranoid.
He even kept a list of his enemies.
What were the Plumbers?
A group of people appointed by Nixon to cover up media leaks against him.
Who was the only real person Nixon trusted?
Henry Kissinger, his National Security Advisor.
Who was Nixon's original Vice-President, and why did he have to resign?
Spiro Agnew, who had to resign after a scandal in Massachusetts.
What was Nixon's biggest positive.
He was a master of foreign policy.
He was able to negotiate with both the Soviet Union and Chinese governments.
How did Nixon lie to the American people during his campaign?
He ran with the promise to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam, but he only escalated it.
He admitted to lying in an interview years later.
What is Vietnamization?
A policy by Nixon to remove troops from Vietnam in an attempt to approve South Vietnamese soldiers.
What country did Nixon order a secret bombing in?
Explain the Watergate Scandal?
Five men were elected in the Watergate building in 1972 for rigging up fake tiny mics to overhear the Democratic Party. 4 of these 5 men were Cuban-American CIA members from Florida. When the investigations started, we learned that Nixon ordered this break-in.
What was the "Smoking Committee" that the Watergate Committee found?
Recordings from Nixon that showed how he planned to cover up the break-in.
What was Nixon v. America?
A Supreme Court case that forced Nixon to turn in the tapes after he initially refused.
What was the issue with one of tapes?
It's missing 85 minutes of footage.
As the senate was beginning to impeach Nixon, what did Nixon do?
Resign from the office in August of 1974.
What is Gerald Ford's term?
How many assassination attempts were made on Ford's life?
2 people who attempted were members of the Manson Cult.
What was Ford's personality?
He was known for being clumsy.
What was the most controversial move as president?
T/F Although many were against Ford's decision, historians look back more positively.
When and how did the Vietnam War end?
April 1975, when North Vietnam invites Saigon, South Vietnam's capital.
Vietnam remains communist to this day.
When was Jimmy Carter's term?
What was Carter's biggest scandal?
The Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Explain the Iranian Hostage Crisis.
In 1978, Iran had a change in government. In that same year, a Iranian group of students storm the American Embassy in Iran took 52 hostages. 6 others escaped and were taken in by a Canadian foreign government official.
How did the U.S. plan to rescue the 6 people?
The U.S. developed a scheme to make a sci-fi movie in Iran in an attempt to save the hostages.
What happened with the U.S. first attempt to save the other hostages?
A sandstorm caused the helicopters to crash into each other.
How did the Iranians act towards the first attempt?
They were infuriated, and stated that as long as Carter was still president, they would not release the hostages.
When were the hostages released?
On 12:00 Noon on the day of Regan's inauguration.
What was Ronald Regan's term?
How old was Regan when he entered office?
How old was Regan after office?
What happened to Regan in March or 1981?
John Hinkely Jr attempted to assassinate Regan after one of his speeches. No one notice until Regan was spitting up blood in his car.
What has happened since Regan's assassination attempt?
The president is no longer allowed to be around small crowds.
During his presidency, what was Regan showing signs of?
This is what he died of.
What was Regan's personality?
He was a very charismatic guy, but he wasn't the most academic person. He was also very anti-communist.
Being an actor probably helped a lot in this regard.
What was George H.W. Bush's term?
What was George H.W. Bush's major crisis?
The Persian Gulf War.
What was Bill Clinton's term?
How did George W. Bush win the election of 2000?
He won by a minute amount because Florida voted in his favor.
What was George W. Bush's term?
What was George W. Bush's crisis?
Who wins the election of 2008?
When is the best time for a president to enforce an executive order?
At the beginning of their presidency.
Magruder's American Government
William A. McClenaghan
United States Government: Democracy In Action
Richard C. Remy
United States Government: Principles in Practice
Luis Ricardo Fraga
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