Implications for management
People need time to build up expertise before they become truly innovative.
Intrinsic motivation is important and can be destroyed through extrinsic motivation.
Judgement needs much more time to develop than taking formal decisions: Young engineers
are strongest in well defined problem situations with clear criteria what a solution is.
Hard work is as important as talent.
What is creativity and on which parameters does it depend?
Creativity is the ability to make a difference between the obvious and new combinations.
- environment (positiv feedback)
- intrinsic motivation
- control that pushes in a certain direction
- Domain skills / Expertise
- conducive work stile
What are the similarities and differences in Herbert Simon's and Teresa Amabile's views on
Environment / circumstances are very important for creativity and the results.
What is annus mirabilis? Give examples
An annus mirabilis is a year with many extraordinary inventions:
1666: Newton discovers classical mechanics, breakthroughs in analysis, ...
1905: Einstein discovers photoeffects, relativity theory, ...
Who is an "expert"? What does it take to be one?
Experts are able to make distinction between the obvious and the creative. It takes hard training to become an expert (10yrs, 50'000 junks of knowledge)
Cite similarities and differences in scientific and managerial creativity.
- complex problem space, many unknown influences, complexity
- Community / customers decide weather a solution is creative / successful
- Creativity is more than application of rules, but new combination of existing knowledge
- Expertise and training are a prerequisite
- Risk taking
- Science: define and select goals and problems // Management: guidance by strategy, long term goals
- Risk taking: Oportunity to fail is less risky in science
Ability to achieve a goal, even in the presence of obstacles. Many scientists see it detached from our body, in our mind. Others perceive it as an ability to structure our environment, developed through evolution and not detachable our body.
The occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or
beneficial way. Coined by H. Walpole, The three princes of serendipity.
A feature of something perceived that is used in the brain's interpretation
of the perception. A sign to an actor to begin his performance.