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Ch. 4 &5 continued
Terms in this set (44)
Side effects of sleep apnea
Overtime can cause high blood pressure & irregular heartbeat; it may gradually erode a persons health and is associated with a shortened life expectancy
A disorder involving a sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or lapses into REM sleep; often develops in the teenage years; last from 5 to 30 mins
Causes of narcolepsy
Has been associated with reduced amounts of a particular brain protein, possibly brought on by an autoimmune problem, viral infection, or genetic abnormalities.
Unusual symptom that happens to people with narcolepsy. Brings on the paralysis of REM sleep although they are still awake; as a result, they may suddenly drop to the floor. Is often triggered by laughing excitedly, but it can sometimes be induced by telling a joke or even having an orgasm.
REM behavior disorder
A disorder in which the muscle paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is absent or incomplete, and the sleeper is able to act out his/her dreams.
What do people with REM behavior disorder have a increased risk of developing?
Parkinson's disease and dementia
Mental benefits of sleep
Better memory, crucial time for consolidation, in which synaptic changes associated with recently stored memories become durable and stable, enhances problem solving
Discuss explanations for why we dream
Freud claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious. Our dreams reflect unconscious conflicts, wishes, often sexual or violent in nature. The thoughts and objects in these dreams are disguised symbolically to make them less threatening
Activation synthesis theory
The theory that dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain
Who first proposed the activation synthesis theory?
Psychiatrist Allan Hobson, these dreams are the results of neurons firing spontaneously in the pons during REM sleep these neurons control eye movement and balance and posture. Send messages to the sensory & motor areas of the cortex responsible during wakefulness for visual processing & voluntary action
Strengths and weaknesses of the theory that dreams are efforts to deal with problems
Weakness: there's doubts that people can actually solve problems/ resolve conflicts while sound asleep.
Strengths: The insights to these problems that people attribute to dreaming could be occurring after they wake up & have a chance to think about what is troubling them
Strengths and weaknesses of the activation synthesis theory
Weakness: Not all dreams are as disjointed or as bizarre as the theory predicts
Strengths: some neuropsychologists emphasize different brain mechanisms involved in dreams & many believe that dreams do reflect a persons goals & desires
Strengths and weaknesses of the cognitive approach
Weakness: some of its claims remain to be tested against neurological and cognitive evidence
Strengths: it is a leading contender because it incorporates many elements of other theories and fits what we currently know about waking cognition & cognitive development
Of the major scientific theories of dreaming, which 1 has a difficult time accounting for dreams that follow a logical, linear, coherent story line?
Activation synthesis theory
Of the current explanations for dreaming, which theory shows the most promise?
The cognitive approach
A procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in a subjects sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
The truth and misconception that hypnotic responsiveness depends more on the efforts & qualities of the person being hypnotized than on the skill of the hypnotist
Truth: Susceptibility is unrelated to general personality traits such as gullibility, trust, submissiveness, or conformity
Misconception: weakly related to the ability to become easily absorbed in activities and the world of imagination
Truth about hypnotized people who cannot be forced to do things against their will
Truth: hypnotized people will not do anything that actually violates their morals or constitutes a real danger to themselves or others
Truth & misconception about feats performed under hypnosis can be performed by motivated people without hypnosis
Truth: with proper motivation support and encouragement the same people could do the same things even without being hypnotized
Misconception: hypnotized subjects sometimes perform what seem like extraordinary mental/ physical feats, but hypnosis does not actually enable people to do things that would otherwise be impossible
The truth about hypnosis not increasing the accuracy of memory
In rate cases, hypnosis has been used successfully to jog the memories of crime victims, but usually the memories of hypnotized witnesses have been completely mistaken
The truth and misconception about hypnosis not producing a literal re-experiencing of long ago events
Truth: When people are regressed to an earlier age, their mental and moral performance remains adult like. Their brain wave patterns & reflexes do not become childish; they do not reason like children do or show child sized IQ'S
Misconception: many people believe that hypnosis can be used to recover memories from as far back as birth
The truth about hypnotic suggestions have been used effectively for many medical & psychological purposes
It's greatest success is in pain management; some people experience dramatic relief of pain resulting from conditions as diverse as burns, cancer, childbirth, and learned to cope better emotionally with chronic pain
A split in consciousness in which 1 part of the mind operates independently of others
Dissociation theory of hypnosis
Ernest Hilgard argued that hypnosis like lucid dreaming & distraction involves dissociation
What happens during hypnosis?
A dissociation occurs between 2 systems in the brain the system that processes incoming info about the world & an executive system that controls how we use that info
Hypnotized behavior of dissociation
Hypnotized volunteers had to submerge an arm in ice water for several seconds, they were feeling no pain, but their unsubmerged hand would be able to signal the level of any hidden pain by pressing a key
Sociocognitive hypnosis theory
Effects of hypnosis results from an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs, expectations of the subject
Behavior of sociocognitive hypnosis
Basically enacting a role. This role has analogies in ordinary life where we willingly submit to the suggestions of parents, teachers, drs, therapists & television commercials
4 main categories of psychoactive druga
Stimulants, depressants, opiates, psychedelics
Drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
Drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system
Drugs that slow activity in the central nervous system
Drugs derived from the opium poppy, that receive pain and commonly produce euphoria
What do psychedelic drugs do?
It's a conscious altering drug that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt the hormonal perception of time and space
Nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, meth, MDMA
Effects of stimulants
In moderate amounts they produce feelings of excitement, confidence, and well being or euphoria. In large amounts they can make a person, anxious jittery, hyper alert. Very large doses may cause convulsions, heart failure, or death
Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates, common chemicals that people inhale to try and get high
Effects of depressants
Slow down activity in the central nervous system, make a person feel calm/drowsy, reduce anxiety, guilt, tension, inhibitions, in large amounts they may produce insensitivity to pain, and other sensations. Can cause irregular heartbeats and death
Opium, heroin, codene, morphine, methadone, oxycodone, hydrocodone
Effects of opiates
When injected can enhance the transmission of dopamine, produce a rush of euphoria, decrease anxiety and motivation, in large amounts can cause coma/death
What does LSD stand for?
lysergic acid diethylamide
More types of psychedelic drugs
Mescaline, saliva divinorum, psilocybin
Effects of psychedelic drugs
Can treat anxiety disorders and end of life distress
Outline the physiology of drug effects and explain the process by which biochemical changes take place
Psychoactive drugs produce their effects by acting on brain neurotransmitters, the chemical substances that carry messages from 1 nerve cell to another. A drug may increase/decrease the release of neurotransmitters at the synapses; prevent the reuptake of excess neurotransmitter molecules by the cells that have released them; or interfere with the receptors that a neurotransmitter normally bind to
Other sets by this creator
Ch. 4 & 5