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Human Behavior 6 weeks
Terms in this set (115)
A field of study is considered a science based on the use of the ._______________. This involves
a dynamic interaction between hypothesis testing and the construction of theories
_________is a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predictions about future occurrences or behaviors.
Scientific thinking and procedures revolve around the concepts based on theory. __________is a testable
prediction about processes that can be observed and measured. It must be testable.
__________ is a well-tested explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole. They are built from hypotheses that are repeatedly tested and confirmed.
____________ is a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
The biopsychosocial model
_________ is a method of explaining how behavior and personality are influenced by primitive drives and unconscious thought processes.
___________ are the inquiry into how heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) influence behavior and mental processes.
nature and nurture relationships
____________is an approach that dominated the first half of the 20th century of US psychology and had a
singular focus on studying only observable behavior, with little to no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influences on behavior.
______________focuses on the unique aspects of each individual human, each person's freedom to act, his or her rational thought, and the belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals.
An extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body is called the _________________ ______________.
The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system is called a __________________.
The long tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells on the neuron is the _______________
On a neuron, the branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons are the ___________________.
The cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell and containing the mitochondria, is the _________________.
The fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse are the _________________.
The bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body are known as the ______________.
The charged particles located inside and outside of the neuron are called ____________.
The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse is known as the ________________ ____________________.
_____________________ refers to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all.
all or none
The _____________ _____________ are sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals.
__________________________ are chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, have an effect on the next cell.
The ______________________ neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire.
The __________________________ mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell.
The __________________ _______________ is a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that are responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes.
A neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system and is also known as the afferent is called a ____________________ ________________.
All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself are in the __________________ ____________________ system.
The division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body is the ______________ ________________ system.
The ___________________ _________________ system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons.
The part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the _______________________ __________________ of the nervous system.
A machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain is called a(n) _________________________.
The part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement is called the ______________________.
The part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area and is called the _______________________.
The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal is called the _____________________.
The _____________________ ________________ is an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention.
The _______________________ is a curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects.
The ____________________ is a brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
The _______________ is the outermost covering of the brain, consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input.
The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the _________________ _______________.
The section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain is called the ________________ _______________.
The sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations is called the _______________________ ____________________________.
The __________________ _________________ is the area of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
The ____________________ ______________________ are areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
The _____________________ glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
The endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence are called the ___________________ ____________________.
____________________ is the activation of receptors in the various sense organs.
_______________ __________ ________________ __________________ is the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time.
just noticeable difference
The smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present is called ____________________ ______________________.
The process by why subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind, influencing behavior is called _________________ __________________.
____________________________ is the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information.
The tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging _________________ _______________________.
This refers to the purity of the color people see and it is called _______________.
The ________________ is a clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye; protects the eye and is the structure that focuses most of the light coming into the eye.
The ____________________ is another clear structure behind the iris, suspended by muscles; finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea.
The visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision are called the _____________.
The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness is called _______________ ______________.
The images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed are called _______________________.
The thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear, just like a drum skin covers the opening in a drum is called the ___________ _____________________.
The bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear; receives neural message from the organ of Corti in the _________________ ________________.
The term for the sensation of a taste is called _____________________.
The sense of smell is called _________________________.
The areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells are called ________________________ ____________________.
The body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses are called _________________ ______________________.
The sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other is called the ____________________ ____________.
______________________________ is the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion.
A Gestalt principle known as __________________________ ____________ is the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background.
The Gestalt principle of ___________________ is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
The Gestalt principle of ___________________ is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
The ability to perceive the world in three dimensions is known as _______________________ _____________________.
__________________________ cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only.
_____________________ cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes.
__________________ ______________ is the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions.
_____________________ __________________ is the claim of perception that occurs without the use of normal sensory channels such as sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.
The study of ESP, ghosts, and other subjects that do not normally fall into the realm of ordinary psychology is called ____________________.
__________is a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment.
The state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness is called_________of consciousness.
The_____________is a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period.
__________are brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds.
The_____________of sleep is the theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.
___________are brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep.
____________is a stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream.
rapid eye movement
____________are a relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.
REM sleep is also known as__________because there is a high level of brain activity.
____________is the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.
____________is a disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more.
_____________is a sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning.
The state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion is called a ____________.
When more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect it is called a ___________
The physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems are called ___________.
The feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being is__________.
____________are drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.
Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system are known as__________
___________are a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins.
___________are drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication.
__________ concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organisms toward specific goals.
The body's physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the outer environment are called ____________.
__________ are the stimuli we seek to reduce drives such as social approval and companionship, food, water, and other needs.
__________ are the physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed, such as food.
The point in a meal when we are no longer motivated to eat is __________.
__________ ___________ is the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume.
__________ __________ is an eating disorder characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging.
__________ is a disorder of positive energy balance, in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.
__________ is the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure.
A __________ __________ is a time during which erection and orgasm are not physically possible.
An eating disorder that involves self-starvation, an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted perception of body image, and a denial of the serious consequences of severely low weight is __________ ____________
_______ ________ ________is the motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant feelings such as warmth, affection, appreciation, and mutual concern for each person's well-being.
need to belong
__________ __________ is the drive to perform at high levels to accomplish significant goals.
A __________ __________ reflects a desire to understand or overcome a challenge.
__________ _____________ theory is a psychological perspective asserting that the human fear of mortality motivates behavior, particularly those that preserve self-esteem and sense of belonging.
__________ ____________ are enjoyable and pleasant incentives that we are drawn toward, such as praise or financial reward.
__________ ____________ are unpleasant outcomes such as shame, embarrassment, or emotional pain, which we try to avoid.
The __________ __________ of emotion states that our physiological reactions to stimuli precede and give rise to the emotional experience.
The __________ __________ of emotion states that emotions such as fear or happiness occur simultaneously with their physiological components.
The __________ __________ __________ states that if emotional expressions influence subjective emotional experiences, then the act of forming a facial expression should elicit the specific, corresponding emotion.
facial feedback hypothesis
__________ __________ _________ of emotion holds that patterns of physical arousal and the cognitive labels we attach to them form the basis of our emotional experiences.
Schachter's two-factor theory
__________ __________ refer to the unwritten expectations we have regarding when it is appropriate to show a certain emotion.
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