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Idea that knowledge comes from human reasoning; went against the thought that God simply controlled everything; did not cause problems with the church like some of the other -isms


Idea that knowledge comes from experience and testing; this and rationalism tend to go hand-in-hand


In the time between the Enlightenment and today, many of these took place, but the most significant ones were in France, Italy, and Russia


Idea that religion does more damage to mankind than it does help; caused obvious conflicts with the Catholic Church

Great Depression

After World War I, this hit the entire world, particularly Germany; made jobs extremely difficult to find, and many families had a hard time making ends meet; made European nations susceptible to the new governments


The original idea that Karl Marx had of living communally; formed to go against the capitalist ideas of the Industrial Revolution, which was going on at the time; major conflict with the church was due to the way Marx thought of religion as a way of keeping humans in control


Stalin's idea of Marxism carried out in a vastly different way; involved creating a totalitarian government that had complete control over business and everyday aspects of life


The idea that the government can and should control all aspects of the lives of its citizens, leaving few choices in life; did not leave much freedom for the citizens who lived in areas with this government; these sorts of governments accepted religion as long as it did not interfere with party ideology


System by which those that have the means of production make the most money; large part of the Industrial Revolution, which caused horrible working conditions, the exploitation of workers, and child abuse; Marxism was started as a response to this


Governmental nationalist system in which the state and big business partners eliminate worker rights and any resistance to governmental or corporate power; everything is done for the state; put one group of people over others; Nazism was a stem from this

Cold War

Nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union; reason neither side ever attacked the other was because they feared the other side retaliating (this was called mutually assured destruction, or MAD); went on from the mid-1940s to 1990


Idea that Christians should try reach out to others in order to achieve unity; one way to do this is to meet with the leaders of other religions

Catholic Action

Aggregate total of a group of associations of laypersons doing charity among the poor; founded by Pope Pius X; many Catholic social-service groups today are based on the groups that are part of this

Immaculate Conception

Doctrine that Mary the mother of God was conceived without original sin; made doctrine by Pope Pius IX in an ex cathedra statement


Doctrine that Mary the mother of God was taken to heaven in body and spirit; made doctrine by Pope Pius IX in an ex cathedra statement

Papal Infallibility

Doctrine that the pope, when making statements about the truth, is always correct, no matter what; upheld in Vatican I and defended by John Henry Newman

Catholic Social Teaching

Guidance that the pope offers through social justice proposals and encyclicals; Catholic Action was formed based on this

Social Justice Proposals

Came from the many encyclicals that were published by the popes; helped to make up Catholic Social Teaching


A letter written by the pope and sent to the whole church and at times beyond the church to the whole world; commonly focused on church teaching regarding a particular issue or currently important matter; offer social justice proposals that make up Catholic Social Teaching

Vatican II reforms

1. Liturgy - more lay participation during mass, such as speaking the vulgate and the priest facing the people
2. Ecumenism - decided to meet with the leaders of other religions to promote the restoration of unity among Christians
3. Role in the modern world - to help humanity become even more human in the best sense of the word and to interpret the signs of the time in the light of God's Word
4. Church's mission - all Catholics make up the body of Christ, and all Christians are called to develop in evangelization and to work to bring the Kingdom of God

St. Vincent de Paul

Founded the Congregation of the Mission in 1625; the people who were part of this served "out in the world" and ran hospitals, orphanages, and schools

St. John Baptist de La Salle

Founded the De La Salle Christian Brothers to educate poor children in schools with a school day similar to the one currently used

St. Jane de Chantal

Founded the Visitation Sisters in 1610 with St. Francis de Sales

St. Francis de Sales

Founded the Visitation Sisters in 1610 with St. Jane de Chantal

Pope Pius IX

Pope from 1846-1878; saw the end of the Papal States when Italy unified and the establishment of the Vatican; called himself a "prisoner of the Vatican"; made two ex cathedra statements about Mary the mother of God (Immaculate Conception and Assumption)

Pope Pius XII

Made efforts to save lives and do war relief work during World War II; came under attack for his decision because of the moral dilemma he faced

Pope John XXIII

Pope for only five years; important because he started the Vatican II council, which shaped the role of the Church today and changed many practices that are also used today

Pope Paul VI

Pope that continued Vatican II after the death of Pope John XXIII in 1963; known for his unfailing strength to speak for peace during the Cold War; wrote Humanae Vitae, which upheld the Church's beliefs on human sexuality

Pope John Paul II

Pope from 1978 to 2005; put the Vatican II teachings into effect; emphasized ecumenism by meeting with world leaders; spoke on the theology on the body, which explains how the body reveals God's love for us; printed the new catechism; inspired youth through his annual World Youth Day

Pope Benedict XVI

Pope that we have today; has written three encyclicals ("Deus Caritas Est," "Spe Salvi," and ") and one book ("Jesus of Nazareth"); offers humble and pastoral leadership and well thought-out responses and writings

John Henry Newman

Cardinal that defended the doctrine of papal infallibility in the Vatican I council

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