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25 terms

PAP Biology Spring Final Review

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Osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
Hypertonic solution
The concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell
Hypotonic solution
concentration of substances is lower outside of the cell than inside the cell
Isotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Equilibrium
a state of balance
Carrier proteins
carry molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane because they are too large or insoluble
Sodium-potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
Endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Receptor proteins
bind a specific kind of molecule and let it across the membrane
The cell would shrivel up because the water would move out of the cell
What will happen to a red blood cell when it is placed in a hypertonic solution?
Humans; they need for for energy
Give an example of a Heterotroph. What are they?
ATP
When food is broken down, the energy is temporarily stored in what?
It is a portable form of energy
Why is ATP called "energy currency"?
Cellular Respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
Fermentation
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
Photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Calvin cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
Krebs cycle
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.