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diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Facilitated diffusion

movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

Active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy


process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

Passive transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

Hypertonic solution

The concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell

Hypotonic solution

concentration of substances is lower outside of the cell than inside the cell

Isotonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution


a state of balance

Carrier proteins

carry molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane because they are too large or insoluble

Sodium-potassium pump

a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell


process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane


process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

Receptor proteins

bind a specific kind of molecule and let it across the membrane

The cell would shrivel up because the water would move out of the cell

What will happen to a red blood cell when it is placed in a hypertonic solution?

Humans; they need for for energy

Give an example of a Heterotroph. What are they?


When food is broken down, the energy is temporarily stored in what?

It is a portable form of energy

Why is ATP called "energy currency"?

Cellular Respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food


a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances


process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars


a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP

Calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

Krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

Electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

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