AP Biology Chapter 7 Quiz
Terms in this set (25)
Two compounds that can diffuse through the membrane and two that cannot.
Can diffuse- water, oxygen, nonpolar.
Cannot diffuse- ions, polar compounds.
Name three factors that can increase the fluidity in the membrane.
Increase in temperature.
Unsaturated fatty acids.
Absence of cholesterol.
Name three kinds of transmembrane proteins.
Cell Adhesion Proteins
Cytoskeletal Attachment Proteins
Know what each does?
What is the name for the model that describes cell membranes?
Fluid Mosaic Model
Describe how a channel protein's structure allows things to enter and leave cells.
Channels have polar portions that face the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane.
2. Their nonpolar portions are anchored into the cell membrane's hydophobic tails.
3. Beta barrels line the inside and form an empty passage way, filled with fluid.
What is the name for water diffusion and which direction does it move?
Osmosis and from areas of high to low concentration.
In two solutions, it's the one with the most solute.
If a red blood cell is placed in pure water, which direction will water diffuse and what do we call this?
Into the cell because the concentration of solutes are higher inside the cell than outside in the pure water-hemolysis.
It's the pressure of free water molecules colliding with the inside surface of a cell membrane. Also, the special case in plants.
Hydrostatic or Osmotic Pressure. Turgor Pressure.
Name three ways living organisms maintain an osmotic balance with their environment.
-Unicellular Marine- make themselves isotonic (increase intracellular solutes).
-Multicellular Animals- bathe cells in isosmotic fluids; blood, interstitial fluid.
-Fresh water Protozoans- contractile vacuoles and active transport.
-Plants- have no circulatory fluid; most plant cells are hyperosmotic and have a high internal osmotic pressure-turgor pressure.
The three kinds of bulk movement into and out of cells.
In Greek, these terms means "cell drinking" and "cell eating."
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
It's the type of endocytosis that ingests large organisms or fragments of organic matter.
Two disadvantages of exo- and endocytosis.
In detail, describe the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Ligands bind to specific receptor.
Clathrin protein pushes on the cell membrane - phagocytosis.
Creates a clathrin-coated vesicle.
Fuses w/ lysosome and clathrin and receptors are recycled.
They are the two types of proteins involved in passive diffusion.
Channel and Carrier Proteins
It's the term used to describe the passage of only certain molecules into and out of a cell.
Selectively Permeable- based on size and shape of the molecule.
It's the difference between channel and carrier proteins.
Channels are water-filled pores that don't interact with the molecule. Carriers actually bind and help transport.
It's the type of passive transport done by carrier proteins.
They are three characteristics of facilitated diffusion.
May be saturated.
It's the reason for doing active transport,
To move molecules against the gradient and concentrate them in cells.
It's the concentration of sodium and potassium inside the cell relative to the outside.
Sodium- is lower inside the cell.
Potassium- is higher inside the cell.
They are the four types of active transport.
Describe how two separate membrane proteins are involved in the active transport process of molecules.
A Carrier- acts as a pump with the energy of ATP.
A Channel- that allows the molecule of interest to travel back into the cell, down the gradient of the first molecule.
Also, co- and counter-transport.
Describe the process of chemiosmosis.
Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis.
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