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Chapter 5. Cell Respiration and Metabolism
Terms in this set (71)
If blood cannot flow to a tissue, as in ischemia, the tissue quickly dies. Why?
Tissues need oxygen that is carried in the blood.
Death of tissue, often caused by ischemia, is termed
Lack of oxygen in cardiac muscle tissue leads to a buildup of lactic acid in the heart. This can lead to a condition of myocardial ischemia, causing a pain in the chest and left arm called __________ __________
The lack of bleed flow to an organ, as in the case of a blood clot blocking an artery, is termed __________.
Ischemia in the heart often leads to angina pectoris, which is
pain in the chest and left arm
If more calories are consumed than burned, excess energy is stored as
The three events of aerobic cell respiration in order
2. citric acid cycle
3. electron transport
Which molecules are typically used in aerobic respiration to produce ATP?
The TCA cycle is also known as the __________ __________ cycle.
T or F: Cells always prefer to use glucose as a source of energy to make ATP from aerobic pathways.
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose is called __________.
The reason humans inhale oxygen is so that is can be used for:
1. making ATP
2. aerobic respiration
Adipose tissue is mostly
The term aerobic in aerobic cell respiration refers to the requirement of __________ in the metabolic pathway.
Within the cell, glycolysis takes place in the __________.
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule is termed __________.
How many net ATP molecules are produced per glucose in the lactic acid pathway?
2 ATP molecules
Which organ requires oxygen levels high enough to maintain aerobic respiration?
Nitroglycerin is a vasodilator. Why does this drug help angina?
Angina is caused by clogged arteries, so vasodilators increase blood flow.
Which is true of molecules being oxidized?
1. they donate an electron
2. they are always coupled with a molecule being reduced
The symptoms of cyanide poisoning are ultimately caused by the:
lack of ATP
How is aerobic respiration affected if cells have all the ATP they need?
1. glucose is converted to glycogen
2. ATP production is inhibited
3. glucose is converted to fat
In an oxidation/reduction reaction, the molecule being oxidized __________ an electron, while the molecule being reduced __________ one.
The term describing the synthesis of large molecules such as glycogen and proteins from smaller subunits is __________.
Chemical reactions in the body that require na investment of energy are called __________ reactions.
If more calories are consumed than burned, excess energy is stored as:
In a low-carbohydrate diet, glucose may have to be synthesized from noncarbohydrate substrates in a process called:
Creating glucose from lactic acid or other noncarbohydrate molecules is termed __________.
the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones
The definition of the term metabolism is
all catabolic and anabolic reactions occurring in the body.
An abnormally high level of ketone bodies in the blood is called __________.
A genetic mutation in the gene that codes for ATP synthase, causing a decrease in function, might cause a decrease in the
production of ATP
Cyanide acts quickly, and can cause death, by blocking:
the transfer of electrons to oxygen in the final step of aerobic respiration
The formation of fat from excess glucose is called
The vast majority of energy stored in the body is found in
The enzyme that catalyzes lipolysis is __________.
There are two main types of adipose tissue. Which one functions in thermogenesis?
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are unable to utilize blood sugar. This often leads to:
The brain uses blood __________ as it's main source of energy.
How does brown fat stimulate thermogenesis?
It inhibits the production of ATP, so more fats are hydrolyzed to produce ATP.
Which is true of free radicals?
1. They have unpaired electrons
2. They contribute to diseases and aging
During glycolysis, one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of __________ __________.
Finish the chemical equation for aerobic respiration: C6H12O6+O2>
To avoid a severe increase in osmotic pressure inside cells, energy storage is not the form of glucose, but in the form of __________.
When oxygen is plentiful, cells can make about __________ molecules of ATP per glucose molecule. In the absence of oxygen, they can make __________ molecules of ATP.
Many amino acids can be created by body cells when needed. However, ones that cannot be created by the body are called __________ amino acids.
List the steps of the citric acid cycle in order
1. guanosine triphosphate donates a phosphate to ADP to produce ATP
2. NAD is reduced to NADH
3. FAD is reduced to FADH2
What is the definition of glycogenolysis?
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose.
Glycolysis occurs in the __________. The products of glycolysis are further processed in the __________.
Theoretically, if not actually, each glucose molecule can yield approximately __________ ATP molecules in cellular respiration.
During the last step of aerobic respiration, oxygen is __________ by NADH and FADH2.
Which are the main components of the electron transport chain?
1. flavin mononucleotide
2. coenzyme Q
The net yield of glycolysis is __________ ATP molecules.
Choose the two methods of ATP formation in cellular respiration:
1. oxidative phosphorylation
2. direct phosphorylation
Without oxygen acting as the final __________ __________, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation would stop.
In the absence of oxygen, glucose is converted to:
An abnormal condition characterized by obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of triglycerides in the blood is:
Because of the action of __________, there is a higher concentration of H+ in the mitochondrial inter membrane space than the matrix.
Usually, approximately __________ of the energy stored in glucose is lose as heat during aerobic respiration rather than ending up stored in the bonds of ATP.
Which two can use glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and lactic acid as energy sources?
heart and liver
At the beginning of glycolysis, glucose much be activated. This involved:
1. the investment of energy
2. the addition of phosphate to glucose
Pyruvic acid from glycolysis leaves the cytoplasm and enters the __________ of mitochondria.
Excess dietary protein (or amino acids) is
converted to carbohydrate and fat
When hydrogens are added to pyretic acid during the lactic acid pathway, __________ acid is produced.
Which event occurs on the cristae of the mitochondria?
electron transport system
If the liver has enough ATP, the extra acetyl coenzyme A molecules are converted to __________ __________, possibly leading to ketosis.
Which explains the origin of most body heat?
The combustion of glucose is not 100% efficient.
Which are the main substrates for gluconeogenesis?
3. lactic acid
Which two molecules are oxidized during the electron transport system?
NADH and FADH2
During glycolysis, NAD is reduced, forming __________.
Which cell type uses anaerobic metabolism exclusively?
red blood cells
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