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Main reasons economists believe the Great Depression occurred

Stock Market Crash of 1929
Bank failures
Reduction of purchases across the board.

List & explain the social programs that are still in existence

Loss of jobs
Failing economy

The New Deal

Franklin D. Roosevelt's program for helping the U.S. recover from the Stock Market Crash

New Deal's programs that are still in place today

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of 1933
Social Security of 1935

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

1933- A New Deal agency created to insure bank savings and deposits.


A foreign policy adopted by a nation in which the country refuses to enter into any alliances, foreign trade or economic commitments.

Which region in the U.S. is called the Dust Bowl?

Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas- Southwest

The Atlantic Charter

A set of goals for post-WWII drafted by Roosevelt and Churchill.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact

The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defense.


Germany- fascist dictatorship


Italy- fascist dictatorship


Emperor of Japan


Prime minister of Great Britain - monarchy

Franklin D. Roosevelt

President of the United States- democratic system

Axis Powers

Germany, Japan and Italy

Allied Powers

Great Britain, the US, the Soviet Union and France

Maginot Line

Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.

Who did Hitler blame for Germany's loss in World War I?

The Jews; but mostly the government for giving up.


"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

How did President Harry Truman justify his decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan?

More soldiers would die if he didn't; brought the war to a halting stop.

Japanese American Internment Camps

Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.

Strengths of the Allied Power

Strong leaders and lots of materials


June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

The Holocaust

The Holocaust took place in Europe between 1993 and 1945. Six million Jews were systematically and brutally murdered by the Nazis and their collaberators. Miliions of non-Jews, including Roma and Sinti(Gypsies), Serbs, political dissidents, people with disabilities, homosexuals and Jehova's Witnesses, were also persecuted by the Nazis.

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

Communist Expansion

The growth of communism during the 1940s-1970s around the world.


a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully- specifically for communism

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.

Berlin Airlift

Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city

Why did many working women lose their jobs after WWII?

Because the veterans came home and took the workforce back.

The GI Bill of Rights

Provided education for WWII veterans. Allowed veterans to return to the real world and be able to go to school and get jobs in the workforce. Helped to get people to join the military and also allowed congress to put money back into the economy.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the US and Canada.

The Marshall Plan

a massive aid package offered by US that gave food and economic assistance to europe to help countries rebuild.

Why did the United States become involved in the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts?

As part of Truman's containment plan to stop the spread of communism.

Joseph McCarthy

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)


unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)


The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.

Martin Luther King Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Freedom Summer

In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

This law banned racial discrimination and segregation in public accommodations, outlawed bias in federally funded programs, and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce a ban on job discrimination by race, religion, national origin, or sex.

The Federalist Papers

Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists.


Opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states.

The Declaration of Independence

an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."

The Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the Constitution, dealing mostly with civil rights.


A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.

The Fifteenth Amendment

Guaranteed blacks the right to vote.

Poll Tax

A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote.

Literacy Tests

A required test to be taken by African Americans in order to be elligable to vote.

The Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery

The Fourteenth Amendment

An amendment that granted citzenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property "without due process of law."

Unalienable Rights

these rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by law. They include life, liberty, and the persuit of happiness.

Why did the idea of representative government flourish in colonial America?

Because some states were much larger than others, and everyone wanted to be represented equally.

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States: chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826).

George Washington

1st President of the United States: commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799).

The Articles of Confederation

America's first constitution which provided for a new central government with limited powers.

The Vietnam War

The Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States resulted in war.

Richard Nixon

Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States: resigned after the Watergate scandal in 1974 (1913-1994).

The 1960s Youth Movement

Youth disillusioned with government and mainstream society, socially and politically active

The Hippies

-protest against the established order
-timothy leary "turn on to the scene:tune into what's happening, drop out of high school"
-began in haight-ashbury ditrict/greenwich village, NY
-philosphy: love, peace, freedom

The Anti-War Movement

Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because it was the first time a war was shown and accessed through the media to the public in the United States.

War Powers Act

Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.

Who knew about President Nixon's plan to bomb Cambodia in 1969?

Henry Kissinger

Kent State in 1970

Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent &unarmed, and wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles

Casualties of the Vietnam War

about 58,000

Which Supreme Court decision struck down the quota system?

Regents of University of California v. Bakke in 1978.

Roe v. Wade

(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Act that prohibits discrimination or segregation based on race, color, national origin, religion, and gender in all terms and conditions of employment.

twenty sixth amendment

Causes: Draftees into the armed services were any male over the age of 18. There was a seeming dichotomy, however: these young men were allowed, even forced, to fight and die for their country, but they were unable to vote. Effects: Gave 18 year-olds the right to vote.

Title IX under the 1972 Education Amendments Act

Prohibits sex discrimination in any federally assisted educational program or activity.

NY Times

Newspaper that published the Pentagon Papers

Pentagon Papers

A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.

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