AP Review

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Terms in this set (...)

Lasswell's definition of politics?
Who gets what, when, and how
Direct democracy
Government in which all citizens participate directly (no politicians or representatives)
Example of direct democracy
Athens (people vote on everything, no politicians)
Representative democracy
Also called indirect democracy. Government in which leaders make decisions
John Locke
Natural rights: life, liberty, and property. Declaration of Independence modeled after Locke.
Components of Traditional Democracy
Effective participation, enlightened understanding, equality in voting, inclusion, and citizen control of agenda
Pluralist
Belief that politics is mainly a competition among groups. No group dominates. Happy view of politics
Hyperpluralism
Too many groups in politics leading to policy gridlock. (i.e. conflicting laws on gay marriage among states)
Elitist Theory
Democracy dominated by a few top leaders, mostly wealthy and private leaders
Components of American Political Culture
Liberty, Egalitarianism, Individualism, Laissez-Faire, Populism (NOT economic equality)
Constitution
Nation's basic laws
French-and-Indian War
Colonists face taxes after this war.
Natural Rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent upon government.
Three Ideas of Locke
Natural rights, consent of the governed, and limited government
Conservative or Liberal American Revolution?
Relatively a CONSERVATIVE revolution as they only restored unalienable rights. No major changes in lifestyle
Articles of Federation
States have the power. America's first constitution
Weaknesses of the Articles
No supreme court, no president, Congress cannot levy taxes, 9 out of 13 states needed to enact laws, etc.
Shays's Rebellion
Uprising by indebted farmers which cannot be put down. Shows the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Constitutional Convention
After aborted Annapolis Meeting, Shays's Rebellion occurs. This shows need for revision of Constitution
Three Equality Issues Discussed in Convention
Equality/Representation of the States, Slavery, and Political Equality/Voting left to the states
NJ Plan
Equal representation for states in a unicameral congress
VA Plan
Population-based representation
CT "Great" Compromise
Senate, House, bicameral congress
3/5ths Compromise
Slaves counted as 3/5ths of a person for voting reasons
Who makes the voting requirements as per the Constitutional Convention?
The states! A good way to sidestep this issue in Philadelphia
Individual Rights Protected in Constitution
No bills of attainder (declare a person guilty of a crime without a trial), no ex-post facto laws (laws passed after the fact), religious qualifications for holding office prohibited.
Madisonian Model
Limit majority control, separating powers, creating checks and balances, establishing a federal system
How is change slow in the constitution?
Change is SLOW. Amendment process very difficult
Federalists
favor a strong central government
Anti-federalists
favor a weak central government
Federalists Paper
Advocate for a strong central government in 85 articles by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the US Constitution
Amendment 1
speech, press, religion, assembly, petition
Amendment 2
bear arms
Amendment 3
no quartering of soldiers
Amendment 4
no unreasonable searches or seizures
Amendment 5
no double jeopardy, can't be forced to testify against oneself, no loss of life, liberty, or property without due process
Amendment 6
Right to a speedy public trial with a lawyer as well as the right to cross-examine witnesses
Amendment 7
Jury trials in civil suits where value exceeds $20
Amendment 8
No excessive bail or fines, no cruel/unusual punishments
Amendment 9
Unlisted rights are not necessarily denied
Amendment 10
Powers not listed to the states are not denied to the states...Establishes FEDERALISM and RESERVED powers!
The Constitution belongs to the living and not to the dead
Constitution has become more democratic over time. Changes are allowed (via amendments) which show the foresight of the Founding Fathers
Ways to amend the Constitution
First way: 2/3s of Congress agree and then 3/4s of states (or convention)
Second way: 2/3s of national convention followed by 3/4s of states (or convention).
Most are 2/3s of Congress and 3/4 of state
*legislature
Informal Changes
Judicial review (Mrbury v. Madison), technology, changing political practice
Federalism
power shared between the national government and the states
Importance of Federalism
Decentralizes our politics (more opportunities to participate at state and local level), decentralizes our policies (states can serve as laboratories)
Constitutional Basis of Federalism
Article VI of the Constitution states that the US Constitution --> Laws of Congress --> Treaties (order of supreme).
National government cannot usurp state powers under what amendment?
Tenth (reserved powers)
Delegated/Enumerated Powers
Powers given directly to the national government (i.e. right to declare war)
Reserved Powers
Established through 10th amendment; powers cannot be taken away (i.e. maintain schools, conduct elections, voting requirements)
Events that increase power of national government
McCulloch v. Maryland (elastic clause), Commerce Clause, Civil War, Brown v. Board of Education, erosion of state power
McCulloch v. Maryland
Establishes elastic clause, Congress can do anything necessary and proper
Commerce Clause
Gibbons v. Ogden, Congress can regulate commerce
Brown v. Board of Education
prevents states from segregating
Selective Incorporation
Bill of Rights are rights that cannot be taken away by the NATIONAL government. Over time, the Supreme Court has selectively incorporated certain rights from the Bill of Rights to the states
US v. Lopez
Prevents commerce clause from being used in matters that do not deal with commerce (regulating guns in school zones for example)
State obligations to each other
Full faith and credit, privileges and immunities, extradition
Full Faith and Credit
Each state must recognize official documents and judgments rendered by other states.
Privileges and Immunities
Citizens of each state have privileges of citizens of other states.
Extradition
States must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for punishment.
Dual Federalism
a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. Ends in 1930s. (layer cake)
Cooperative Federalism
a system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government
Like a marble cake. Shared costs/administration
Fiscal Federalism
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
The cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments
Grant system
distributing money to states (two types: categorical and block grants)
Block Grants
federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programs
Grants are given to states and local governments.
(states PREFER these)
Categorical Grants
Project grants/formula grants---federal grants that can be used for specific purposes; grants with strings attached
Mandates
Mandates direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules under threat of penalties or as a condition of receipt of a federal grant.
States hate unfunded mandates
Devolution
Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments
(part of Reagan)
Advantages of Democracy/Federalism
Increases access to government
Local problems can be solved locally
Hard for political parties or interest groups to dominate all politics
Disadvantages of Democracy/Federalism
States have different levels of service
Local interest can counteract national interests
Too many levels of government and too much money
Americans with Disabilities Act
UNFUNDED MANDATE: 1. Requires existing public facilities to be made accessible
2. Requires new facilities to comply with accessibility expectations under the ADA.
3. State institutions and local employers are expected to pay for changes made to existing facilities and are responsible for making sure that new facilities are in compliance with the federal requirements under the ADA
Clean Air and Water Act
UNFUNDED MANDATE:1. States have write up plans to meet strict air quality standards.
2. States responsible for administering these plans
3. Requires municipalities and industries to use pollution-control technologies and obtain EPA permits to discharge waste into waters
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
1. Allows states to develop their own welfare reforms. Each state is different with its policies..."new federalism" and devolution at its best! (DEVOLUTION example)
Federalist no. 10
factions are bad, but inevitable...let's pit them up against each other. factions are the result of unequal distribution of property.
Federalist no. 51
A strong national government is needed since men are not angels. In addition, Madison believes that the legislative branch was the strongest, but to prevent this from happening, the legislature is divided into two.
Political culture
distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.
Elements of political culture in the US
liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, civic duty, democracy/populism, but NOT economic equality
What is NOT an example of an element of political culture?
Economic equality
Since what time period/events in history led to the declining trust of government?
Since 1964/Watergate Scandal/Vietnam war but has increased slightly during September 11th
What percent of Americans distrust their government?
2/3s (67%)
What is the attitude of the public toward government?
Many people do not have an opinion.
If public opinion is inconsistent (which it is), this leads to ...
policy gridlock
People vote for policy more or performance?
performance
Public engagement of college students has...
declined since 1964
Political Socialization
the process through which an individual acquires their political orientation
Explain whether political socialization is done informally or formally
Informally, as the family does it...children pick this up and absorb it.
Biggest impact on children in political socialization?
The family followed by the media
Give an example of a forma process of political socialization?
Schools, but schools are NOT linkage institutions
As people age, their political participation and strength of party attachment ...
Increases significantly
Political ideology
coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose
Gender gap
women tend to be less conservative than men
Give an example of a political event that influences political socialization
9/11, New Deal
Identify ideology: Catholics
Liberal
Identify ideology: Evangelicals
Conservative
Identify ideology: Professionals/Lawyer
Liberal
Identify ideology: Oil industry/Construction workers
Conservatives
Identify ideology: South/Mid-West
Conservative
Identify ideology: Northeast/West coast
Liberal
Identify ideology: Rural
Conservative
Identify ideology: Working class
Tend to be liberal, but they are subject to other influences
Identify ideology: Upper-class
Conservative
Identify ideology: Blacks/Minorities
Liberal
Identify ideology: Asians
Conservative
Identify ideology: Hispanics
Liberal
Identify ideology: Whites
Conservative
Voting habits: age
More liberal with youth; more conservative with older folks
Voting habits: Education
More likely to vote
Voting habits: Educated Minority
More likely to vote compared to white voters
Libertarian
Supports individual liberties and a strict limitation on government
Socialism
Transition between capitalism and communism. Economic and governmental system of public ownership of the means of production and exchange.
Defining Issues for Ideologies
Civil Rights, Economics, Public/Personal Issues
Ideologues
Think in ideological terms
Group Benefits Voters
Vote based on how candidates serve the needs of the social group
nature of the times
view of politics based on whether times are good or bad
No issue content
vote routinely for party or personality
Political participation
all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or policies they pursue
Conventional Participation
voting (#1 for presidents) as well as working in campaigns or running for office. Could also be donating money to a campaign
Unconventional Participation
Protest and civil disobedience
Civil Disobedience
form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences
Political Participation By Income
More money, the more likely you are to be involved in politics
Elite
Likely to espouse purely liberal or conservative ideology, especially if an activist like Michael Moore. Elites will raise/frame political issues because they have more access to the media. Also, many elite groups are NOT unified.
Public Opinion
Distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues.
Census
Taken every 10 years. Population count of the U.S.
Minority Majority
Emergence of a non-Caucasian majority
Graying of America
Fastest growing age group is over 65
Regional Shift of People in the US
To the South (Texas especially) and away from the North
Reapportionment
Process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years based on the census for equal representation
Sample
small proportion of people chosen in a survey to be representative of the whole
Target Sample Size
1500-2000
Random Sampling
Key technique employed by sophisticated survey researchers that operates on the principle that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for the sample
Sampling Error
Level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll (generally 3% +/- with a 95% confidence interval)
Exit Polls
Used by the media to predict election day winners, can discourage people from voting such as in 2000 in Florida
Bandwagon Effect
Polls allow everyone to jump on board with the majority as opposed to doing what he/she truly believes
Suffrage
Legal right to vote
19th Amendment
Women gain suffrage
Voting Rights Act
outlaws literacy tests, this causes African-American voting rates to increase
26th Amendment
18 year olds can vote
Amendments dealing with voting
15th Amendment (slaves can vote), 19th Amendment (women can vote), 26th Amendment (18 years can vote), Voting Rights Act (outlaws literacy tests, poll taxes)
15th Amendment
Cannot be denied the right to vote, but grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and poll taxes thwart this amendment
Political Efficacy
belief that one's political participation really matters
Ballot Fatigue
People only vote for a couple of races at the top of the ballot and skip the rest
Civic Duty
Belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote
Who is more likely to vote? Partisan or non-partisan?
Partisan! Much more likely to vote than an independent (non-partisan)
Rates for voting are lowest among this demographic
young people, less education, men, single, not union member
Voter Registration
system adopted by states that requires voters to register well in advance of the election day
percent of voting age population registered?
2/3s
Motor Voter Act
passed in 1993 that requires states to permit people to register to vote when they apply for their driver's license...initial surge but mixed results.
States that have this have a higher voting turnout
Same-day voter registration (most do not have this though anymore)
Obstacles to Voting TODAY
Voter registration, voter id laws, apathy, ineffectiveness of political parties
Mandate Theory of Elections
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics
Policy Voting
Basing your vote choice on issue preferences and where the candidates stand on policy issues; Voters know where they and the candidates stand on issues and see differences between candidates
Horse Race
Media focuses on this...day to day activities instead of the issues/policies
Retrospective voting
voters cast a vote based on what a candidate has done for them lately; Bad economies make politicians nervous.
Party Identification and voting
People still generally vote for a party they agree with.
Trend in the power of political parties
Declining, growing weaker
Three parts of the political party
party in the electorate, organization, and government
Largest part of a political party
Party in the electorate
Linkage Institution
the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda
Nomination
ndorsement
Before 20th century, who chose the candidate to represent the party?
Party organization
Functions of Political Parties
field candidates, nominate candidates, run campaigns, coordinate campaigns at local, state, and federal levels, party image, watchdogs, coordinate policy among the three branches
Pluralists
Winner-takes-all system, whoever gets the most votes
Proportional Representation
Stops third parties since winner takes all in the US unlike Europe.
Downs Model
Voters maximize chances that policies they favor are adopted by government.
Rational-choice theory
Assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives
Party image
A voter's perception of what Republicans or Democrats stand for
Party identification
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other. Increasing percentage who decline to identify with either party, especially among young voters
Ticket-splitting
Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices. Independents are most likely to split tickets which has resulted in DIVIDED government and policy gridlock
Divided Government
split parties in the same level of government