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Psychology Chapter 5 Consciousness

Terms in this set (66)

-What does the evidence actually show?
-Many women do have physical signs associated with menstruation, including cramps, breast tenderness, and water retention, although women vary tremendously in this regard. And of course, these physical symptoms can make some women feel grumpy or unhappy, just as pain can make men feel grumpy and unhappy
-emotional symptoms specifically associated with menstruation-notably, irritability, and depression- are pretty rare, which is why we put "PMS" in quotation marks
-more people claim to have symptoms than actually do
-in reality fewer than 5% of all women have such symptoms predictably over their cycles
-if true PMS is relatively uncommon , then why do so many women think they have it?
-Possibilities:
-they tend to notice feelings of depression or irritability when these moods happen to occur premenstrually but overlook times when such moods are absent premenstrually
-they may label symptoms that occur before a period as "PMS" (I am irritable and cranky; I must be getting my period)
-a women's perceptions of her own emotional ups and downs can also be influenced by cultural attitudes and myths about menstruation
-some studies have encouraged biases in the reporting of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms by using questionnaires with gloomy and negative titles
-they do not include that PMS is nonexistent. They do not deny that some women in some months, have unpleasant moods before or during their periods. However, the accumulated research shows clearly that more women think they have PMS symptoms than they actually do and that fewer women need to be treated for it than commonly assumed
-the really important question is whether PMS affects women's ability to work
-empirical research has failed to establish an connection between phase of menstrual cycle and real-world behavior in the vast majority of women. There is no relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle and work efficiency, problem solving, college exam scores, creativity, or any other behavior that matters in real life
-in the workplace, men and women report similar levels of stress, well-being, and ability to do the work required of them- and it doesn't matter whether the women are premenstrual, menstrual, post-menstrual, or non-menstrual
-Sleep is also necessary for normal mental functioning
-Chronic sleep deprivation increases levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which may damage or impair brain cells that are necessary for learning and memory
-New brain cells may either fail to develop or mature abnormally
-After a loss of even a single night's sleep, mental flexibility, attention, and creativity all suffer
-Several days of staying awake, people may begin to have hallucinations and delusions
-Sleep deprivation rarely reaches that point, but people frequently suffer from milder sleep problems
-10% of adults are plagued by chronic insomnia- difficulty in falling or staying asleep
-Insomnia can result from worry and anxiety, psychological problems, physical problems such as arthritis, and irregular or overly demanding work and study schedules. The result can be grogginess the next day
-Another cause of daytime sleepiness is sleep apnea, a disorder in which breathing periodically stops for a few moments , causing the person to choke and gasp
-Sleep apnea has several causes, from blockage of air passages to failure of the brain to control respiration correctly, and overtime it can cause high blood pressure and irregular heartbeat
-In narcolepsy, another serious disorder, an individual is subject to irresistible and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or actual sleep, lasting from 5 to 30 minutes
-A quarter of a million people in the US suffer from this condition, many without knowing it
-Narcolepsy seems to be caused by the degeneration f certain neurons in the hypothalamus, possibly due to an autoimmune malfunction or genetic abnormalities
-The most common cause of sleepiness is staying up late and, not allowing yourself to get enough sleep at night
-2/3 of all Americans get fewer than the recommended seven or eight hours of sleep and American students get only about six hours a night on average
-Most need more than six hours for optimal performance and many adolescents need ten
-When people don't get enough sleep, they are more likely to get into traffic and work accidents
-activation-synthesis theory: the theory that dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain-draws heavily on physiological research
-they are the result of neurons firing spontaneously in the lower part of the brain, in the pons, during REM sleep
-these neurons control eye movement, gaze, balance, and posture, and they send messages to sensory and motor areas of the cortex responsible during wakefulness for visual processing and voluntary action
-signals originating in the pons have no psychological meaning in themselves
-the cortex tries to make sense of them by synthesizing, or integrating, them with existing knowledge and memories to produce some sort of coherent interpretation
-this is just what the cortex does when signals come from sense organs during wakefulness
-one part of the brain interprets what has gone on in another
-when neurons fire in the part of the brain that handles balance, for instance, the cortex may generate a dream about falling
-when signals occur that would ordinarily produce running, the cortex may manufacture a dream about being chased
-because the signals from the pons occur randomly, the cortex's interpretation-the dream- is likely to be incoherent or confusing
-because the cortical neurons that control the initial storage of new memories are turned off during sleep, we typically forget out dreams upon waking unless we write them down or immediately recount them to someone else
-the brain stem, sets off responses in emotional and visual parts of the brain
-at the same time, brain regions that handle logical thought and sensations from external world shut down.
-dreams tend to be emotionally charged, hallucinatory, and illogical
-the activation-synthesis theory holds that dreams occur when the cortex tries to make sense of spontaneous neural firing initiated in the pons during REM sleep
hypnosis: a procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the subject
-the hypnotized person tries to alter his or her cognitive processes in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions
-hypnotic suggestions typically involve performance of an action, an inability to perform an act, or a distortion of normal perception or memory
-to induce hypnosis, the hypnotist typically suggests that the person being hypnotized feels relaxed, is getting sleepy, and feels the eyelids getting heavier and heavier
-the hypnotized person almost always remains fully aware of what is going on and remembers the experience later unless explicitly instructed to forget it- memory can be restored by a prearranged signal
-hypnosis has been used for everything from parlor tricks and stage shows to medical and psychological treatments
-hypnotic responsiveness demands more on the efforts and qualities of the person being hypnotized than the skill of the hypnotist-some people are more responsive to hypnosis than others
-Hypnotized people cannot be forced to do things against their will-hypnotized individuals may even comply with a suggestion to do something that seems embarrassing or dangerous- the individual is choosing to turn responsibility over to the hypnotist and to cooperate with the hypnotist's suggestions-there is no evidence that hypnotized people will do anything that actually goes against their morals or that constitutes a real threat to themselves or others
-feats performed under hypnosis can be performed by motivated people without hypnosis-hypnosis does not actually enable people to do things that would otherwise be impossible-with proper motivation, support, and encouragement, the same people could do the same things even without being hypnotized
-hypnosis does not increase the accuracy of memory-many people assume that hypnosis can enhance the recall of forgotten experiences but this is not true
-hypnosis does not produce a literal re-experiencing of long-ago events-when people are regressed to an earlier age, their mental and moral performance remains adult-like-their brain-wave patterns and reflexes do not become childish-the reason is not that they are actually reliving the experience of being 4; they are just willing to play the role
-hypnotic suggestions have been used effectively for many medical and psychological purposes-useful in the treatment of psychological and mental problems-its greatest success is in pain management-people experience dramatic relief of pain resulting form conditions as diverse as burns, cancers, and childbirth
-hynotic suggestions have also been used in the treatment of stress, anxiety, obesity, asthma, irritable bowel syndrom, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and even skin disorders