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Chapter 16. Learning Objectives - Martinez Mikelyn
Terms in this set (20)
Distinguish between primary and secondary reproductive organs.
The testes in males and the ovaries in females are example of primary sex organs. The other organs that are indirectly involved in reproduction are called secondary sex organs. For example, uterus, vas deferens etc.
Describe the location and structure of each component of the male reproductive system.
The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen.
Explain the process by which spermatids become mature sperm.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. ... The spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (sperm) by the process of spermiogenesis. These develop into mature spermatozoa, also known as sperm cells.
Trace the pathway of sperm from of testes to the outside of the body.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. ... The primary spermatocyte divides meiotically (Meiosis I) into two secondary spermatocytes; each secondary spermatocyte divides into two equal haploid spermatids by Meiosis II.
Outline the physiologic events in the male sexual response.
Male sexual response is demonstrated by vasodilation and blood engorgement of the penis, leading to an erection. The muscles of the pelvic floor, the vesicles, and the prostrate contract, injecting sperm into the urethra of the penis and resulting in the onset of orgasm. Ejaculation continues with orgasm.
Describe the roles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH),and testosterone in male reproductive functions.
FSH causes the Sertoli cells of the testes (which help nurse developing sperm cells) to begin the process of spermatogenesis in the testes. LH triggers the production of testosterone from the Leydig cells of the testis; testosterone causes the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
Identify each component of the female reproductive system, including the mammary glands.
the organs of the female reproductive system perform the following functions: produce and sustain the female sex cells (egg cells, or ova); transport these cells to a site where they may be fertilized by sperm; provide a favorable environment for developing offspring; move the offspring to the outside at the end of the development period; and produce the female sex hormones.
Oogenesis is the development of eggs in the female body.
Occurs on a monthly basis as part of the ovarian cycle.
Describe the development ovarian follicles.
Development of the follicles is stimulated by production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary gland. Ripening of the follicles then results in an increase in estrogen's levels, as estrogen's is secreted by follicular cells. The corpus lutein secretes progesterone and estrogen's.
Outline the physiologic events in the female sexual response.
Is similar to that of the male and consists of erection and orgasm. The body's responses to sexual stimuli produce increased blood to the erectile tissue in the clitoris, the vaginal mucosa, breasts, and nipples.
Describe the roles of GnRH, FSH, LH estrogen, and progesterone in female reproductive functions.
LH and FSH promote ovulation and stimulate secretion of the sex hormones estradiol (an estrogen) and progesterone from the ovaries. Estrogen and progesterone circulate in the bloodstream almost entirely bound to plasma proteins.
Describe what happens in each phase of the ovarian and uterine cycles, when each phase occurs, and how the cycles interact.
The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22-32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days
Describe the three stages of prenatal development.
This union marks the beginning of the prenatal period, which in humans encompasses three distinct stages: (1) the pre-embryonic stage, the first two weeks of development, which is a period of cell division and initial differentiation (cell maturation), (2) the embryonic period, or period of organogenesis
Distinguish between developmental age and clinical age.
A child's chronological age is their age based on their date of birth. Their developmental age is the age at which they function emotionally, physically, cognitively and socially. A child may be five years old at the time of adoption, but developmentally they may display behaviors that make them seem much younger.
Identify five features of fetal of fetal circulation that are different from postnatal circulatory pathways.
The fetal circulatory system uses 3 shunts. These are small passages that direct blood that needs to be oxygenated. The purpose of these shunts is to bypass the lungs and liver. That's because these organs will not work fully until after birth. The shunt that bypasses the lungs is called the foramen ovale. This shunt moves blood from the right atrium of the heart to the left atrium. The ductus arteriosus moves blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta.
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