Biology 1101 Set 3

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Terms in this set (...)

body weight represents a balance between the energy carried within the molecular bonds of consumed food and
the energy burned in the process of living
somatic cells can include
A) kidney cells B) heart cells
which of the following statements about carnivores is NOT true
plants cannot be carnivores
life gains most of its energy from
sunlight
which of the following is not a critical purpose for which water is used in an animal body
all of the above are important roles of water in animal bodies A) regulates body temperature B) acts as a solvent for many nutrients C) lubricates joints
photosynthesizing plants rely on water to
replace electrons that are excited by light energy and passed from molecule to molecule down an electron transport chain
the DNA in linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called __ which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight and efficient packaging of DNA inside a cell
histones
why must vegetarians worry about balancing complementary proteins
most plant proteins do not all contain the essential amino acids
the C4 mechanism of carbon fixation is an advantage for plants that live in
hot, dry climates
all alcoholic beverages are produced as a result of
cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen
the generation of ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in
A) chloroplast B) mitochondria
the most abundant protein in the world is the enzyme that initiates the fixation of carbon in the calvin cycle. this enzyme is called
rubisco
in asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA cells from __
a single parent
during photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to directly
excite electrons
which of the following statements about fermentation is not correct
all of the above A) fermentation is a less efficient energy produced by aerobic respiration B) in fermentation the molecules that are used as final electron acceptor differs from those used why glycolysis occurs in the presence of oxygen C) fermentation utilizes the electrons generated in the gylcolytic breakdown of glucose D) fermentation in an anerobic process
within the study of thermodynamics, a closed system is defined as a system in which energy does not come in and energy does not go out. which of the following is considered a closed system
the universe
when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens?
one phosphate is removed
the number of chromosome pairs in a species
none of the above are true A) greatest among insects B) is always 23 C)greatest among amphibians D) always greater than three
a planned process of cell suicide is called
apoptosis
which of the following sequences accurately represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis
H2O > NADPH > Calvin Cycle
during the krebs cycle
the products of glycoysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and high-energy electron carrier NADH
if a cell becomes arrested within the cell cycle because it is unable to replicate DNA, which of the stages would you predict it would become arrested in
gap 1 phase
gylcolysis
occurs in all cells
every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another
some of the energy is converted to heat, which is one of the least usable sources of kinetic energy
which of the following statements about glycolysis is incorrect
it requires oxygen
animal cells have counters that keep track of how many times a cell has divided. these counters are called
telomeres
where does the calvin cycle take place
in the stroma of the chloroplast
photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistants use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which __ converts to ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things
cellular respiration
which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis
photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it
which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve
oxygen
the human genome comprises
46 chromosomes
the first law of thermodynamics states that energy is constant; it can __, but not __
be transferred and transformed; created or destroyed
basal metabolic rate:
is a measure of the minimal energetic needs of an individual at rest
in humans, the haploid number equals
23
the purpose of mitosis is to enable existing cells to
generate new genetically identical daughter cells
which of the following is the first step in CAM photosynthesis
plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide
which of the following products of light reactions of photosynthesis are later employed in the calvin cycle
NADPH and ATP
a cyclist rides her bike up a very steep hill. pick from the following choices the one that properly describes this example in energetic terms
A) potential energy in food is converted to kinetic energy as muscles push the cyclist up the hill D) gravity provides a source of potential energy
potential energy
is contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements
the phosphate groups in ATP
all of the above are correct A)covalently bonded to each other B) represent a significant source of stored energy C) are negatively charged D) release energy when separated from the rest of the molecule
what are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis
electrons, oxygen and hydrogen ions
all organisms need energy. what are the two fundamentally different ways they can get it
they can make it themselves, such as plants do during photosynthesis, or they can eat other organisms, as most animals do
the gap 1, DNA synthesis and Gap 2 phases of the cell cycle are collectively called
interphase
in most bacteria, the DNA is carried
in a singular circular chromosome
mitosis results in
daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes
a kilocalorie
A) is defined at 1000 calories B) is a measure of energy
errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. why might that be a good thing?
new genes can enter the population and be acted on by evolution
cellular respiration is the process by which
energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism
eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four phases, in the following order
mitosis, Gap 1, DNA synthesis, Gap 2
mitosis results in
daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes
DNA replication occurs during the __ phase of the cell cycle
DNA synthesis
three different metabolic pathways are responsible for the production of ATP, what are they?
glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
during C4 photosynthesis
plants are able to continue producing sugars even when they must close their stomata to reduce water loss during hot days
carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters the plant through the
stomata
oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis originates as
atoms contained in water molecules