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Biology 111 Chemistry and Enzyme Quiz
Terms in this set (56)
How many elements are naturally occurring elements
a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nuclei
What is an element?
oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N).
Which four elements are most common in organisms?
How many total elements are there on the periodic table?
An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter that forms a chemical element.
What are atoms?
protons, neutrons, electrons
What are three subatomic particles that compose atoms
The parts of an atom are protons, electrons, and neutrons. A proton is positively charged and is located in the center or nucleus of the atom. Electrons are negatively charged and are located in rings or orbits spinning around the nucleus.
Where are each found in an atom?
Proton (+e) , Neutron (0) , and Electron (-e)
What are the charges of each?
The atomic number or proton number of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of every atom of that element.
What is the Atomic Number?
What is atomic weight
What is atomic weight
Mass number = protons + neutrons
Given the atomic number and atomic weight (mass number) determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons?
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, and consequently in nucleon number.
What are isotopes?
Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes in a variety of ways. One of the more common uses is as a tracer in which a radioisotope,
Explain how isotopes are used in medicine and research?
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
What is a molecule?
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
What is a chemical bond?
In a covalent bond, two atoms share one or more electrons. Water is a polar molecule. A hydrogen bond is a relatively weak bond between two oppositely partially charged sides of two or more molecules. ... In an ionic bond, an atom gives away one or more electrons to another atom.
How are covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds formed between atoms?
Covalent & ionic = Strong
Are they weak or strong bonds?
An ion is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electrical charge.
What is an ion?
An anion is an ion that has gained one or more electrons, acquiring a negative charge. A cation is an ion that has lost one or more electrons, gaining a positive charge.
What is a cation and an anion?
Ions are formed when the number of protons in an atom does not equal the number of electrons. If more protons are present, the ion is positive and is known as a cation; if more electrons are present, the ion is negative and referred to as an anion.
How do atoms become either a cation or an anion?
pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
What is pH?
Understand the pH scale
A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
What is a buffer?
A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution.
a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water
tending to repel or fail to mix with water
Macromolecules are: (1) large molecules that contain 10s of atoms to billions of atoms (2) organic- the molecules contain at least Carbon and Hydrogen (3) complex enough that life is usually necessary to make them. (4) have a carbon skeleton for structure and functional groups that determine chemical properties
There are four types of macromolecules:
(1) carbohydrates, (2) lipids, (3) proteins, (4) nucleic acids.
sugars, starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose, peptidoglycan. Most carbohydrates have a ringed carbon skeleton....one ring up to thousands of rings joined together.
one sugar molecule, simple sugars
primary choice by cells to make cellular energy (ATP)
e.g. glucose, fructose.....
two sugar molecules joined together, simple sugars,
e.g. sucrose, lactose
many sugar molecules joined together, complex sugars (carbohydrates)
storage form of a carbohydrate
e.g. glycogen(animals) and starch(plants)
chitin (fungi, arthropods), cellulose (plants) and peptidoglycan (bacteria) are complex carbohydrate molecules that cells use as building blocks of cell walls.
a. Triglycerides are fat molecules that cells construct to store energy. What is the basic structure of a triglyceride? What are the structural differences between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?
b. Phospholipids are molecules that cells construct as building blocks for cell membranes and other membrane-bound organelles (e.g, mitochondria). What is the basic structure of a triglyceride?
c. Steroids are molecules that have four carbon rings that are fused directly to each other. Recognize the basic structure of a steroid. Examples include cholesterol and some hormones
Lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids.
a. Each protein molecule is made-up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Most proteins are made up of about 200 adjacent amino acids.
b. There are 20 different types/kinds of amino acids that cells use to build proteins. Each
protein must have the correct number and sequence of amino acids to function properly.
c. Proteins are used as building blocks for cell walls, cell membranes, flagella, cilia, and organelles. They are also used as enzymes that allow cells to create chemical reactions.
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
Describe the four types of protein structure.
take away or alter the natural qualities of
are made-up of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base.
What is the basic structure of a nucleotide?
DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose.
How are DNA and RNA nucleotides different?
RNA is single-stranded while DNA is double-stranded. RNA contains uracil while DNA contains thymine. RNA has the sugar ribose while DNA has the sugar deoxyribose.
How is the structure of DNA and RNA different?
The structure of ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups.
Describe the basic structure of ATP.
2. Enzyme-substrate complex
3. enzyme-product complex
Enzymes are ______________________ that function as biological catalysts, facilitating the
conversion of a _____________________ into a _______________________.
Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst.
A specific enzymes usually work on only ____________________ type of substrate.
You can easily recognize a molecule that is an enzyme because its name will usually end with
the letters ______________________.
Enzymes have small crevices that allow a substrate to precisely bind to it. This small crevice
is called the _________________________________.
When the enzyme and substrate temporarily bind to each other and activation energy is
lowered for the reaction, we call this the ________________-__________________ complex.
________________ (inorganic, minerals or ions) and _______________________ (organic, vitamins) loosely attach to enzymes and complete the active site of that enzyme. Without them, some enzymes cannot function correctly and normal metabolism is impaired.
Environmental factors may disrupt the normal shape or function of enzymes. Name three environmental conditions that may disrupt enzymes.
Allosteric regulation involves regulatory molecules temporarily binding to the allosteric site of the enzyme.
The allosteric site is a site that allows molecules to either activate or inhibit (or turn off) enzyme activity.
What is the allosteric site of an enzyme?
increases reaction rate
What happens if a molecule binds to the allosteric site?
Besides the cell's own regulatory molecules, other molecules may inhibit the function of enzymes which will slow or stop certain chemical reactions from occurring within cells.
If an inhibitor molecule binds to the active site of an enzyme and prevents the true substrate from binding, then this type is called ________________________________.
If an inhibitor molecule binds to the allosteric site of an enzyme and permanently changes the shape of the enzyme, then this type is called ________________________________.
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