Upgrade to remove ads
Endocrine Module I Part B
Terms in this set (41)
What is anti diuretic hormone (ADH)?
a hormone that regulates the volume of water in the blood which influences blood pressure and osmolality/osmolarity of plasma
What is osmolality?
amount of solute per kg of solvent
What is osmolarity?
amount of solute per liter of solvent
What happens when ADH is released?
-increased blood volume
-increased blood pressure
-decreased osmolarity if there isnt a corresponding increase in plasma electrolytes
What are the target tissues for ADH?
kidney-collecting ducts-ADH increases permeability for collecting duct to reabsorb more water back into the circulation from the collection duct
-smooth muscle-in very high concentrations -vasoconstricts smooth muscle which elevates bp-generally happens when there is pharmaceutical ADH administered
What are the stimuli for ADH?
increased plasma osmolarity (concentration)
ie. dehydration or salt ingestion
other stimuli=stress, trauma, exercise, heart, various drugs, nicotine, morphine, etc
angiotensin II=promotes release of this drug
What happens to ADH concentration when a 10% increase in osmolarity occurs?
a large ADH release
What happens to ADH concentration when a 10% decrease in blood pressure occurs?
a small ADH release
What are the inhibitors of ADH?
decreased plasma osmolality
increased blood volume/presssure
alcohol and caffeine
What happens in diabetes insipidus with ADH?
too little or ineffective ADH
What is central DI?
most common form of diabetes insipidus
-decreased ADH from posterior pituitary
-can be caused by pituitary tumor, TBI, ischemia, etc
What are the signs/symptoms of central DI?
polyuria-excess urine volume
What is the treatment for central DI?
What is nephrogenic DI?
less common than central DI
-inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH
-ADH receptors in kidney collecting ducts are damaged from disease or drugs
What is gestational DI?
enzyme made by the placenta destroys ADH in the mother
What is syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)?
too much ADH
-excess ADH secretion due to different pathologies
-caused by: bronchiogenic tumors, diabetes mellitus, head injuries or meningitis, medications
What is euvolemic hyponatremia?
caused by SIADH
-fluid shirts can cause cell CNS swelling and alter function in CNS (confusion, coma, etc)
What is the mechanism of SIADH?
1. excess ADH secretion increases water reabsorption in kidney
2. the kidneys retains more water but NOT more sodium
3. causes an increase in total body water (hypo-osmality)
4. the excess total body water transiently stimulates the kidneys to excrete water and sodium
5. Hyponatremia increases while the total body water returns to normal volumes (euvolemic)
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland release?
thyroid stimulating hormone-TSH
follicle stimulating hormone-FSH
endorphins: beta endorphin and beta lipotropin
What is the function of prolactin?
lactogenesis-milk production after birth
growth-breast development during puberty and pregnancy, similar to growth hormone
inhibits ovulation-regular breast feeing will inhibit ovulation "natural birth control"
What is the target tissue for prolactin?
mammary glands: puberty, pregnancy, and while lactating newborn
What are the stimuli for prolactin?
-estrogen & thyroid releasing hormone-stimulate release of this hormone
-combo or this hormone, GH, estrogen, progesterone, and TRH all promote breast growth and development which inhibits dopamine (inhibitor of this hormone)
What are the inhibitors for prolactin?
-dopamine (constant tonic release of dopamine from hypothalamus inhibits release of this hormone)
-discontinuation of stimuli mentioned
ie. breast feeding, sleep, estrogen, etc.
What is the function of growth hormone?
growth-anabolic function, promotes tissue growth/maturation
How does growth hormone indirectly stimulate?
via somatomedins (IGF-1) which is released by the liver which is stimulated by this hormone IGF-1 travel to all tissues in the body to directly stimulate cellular growth and proliferation
How does growth hormone affect fat metabolism?
is stimulates lipolysis so fat stores can be used as fuel and spare glucose
How does growth hormone affect glucose metabolism?
inhibits glucose uptake and stimulates liver glycogenolysis to release glucose into the blood
How does growth hormone affect protein metabolism?
stimulates amino acid uptake in tissue
What are the target tissues for growth hormone?
muscle and all other tissues
What are the stimuli for growth hormone?
stage 4 (deep) sleep
What are the inhibitors for growth hormone?
negative feedback cycles
What is dwarfism?
insufficient GH hormone
-dysfunction that happens before growth plates close
-can be from impaired secretion of this hormone or receptors
What is gigantism?
excess of GH hormone
-excess develops before epiphyseal plates close
-both long and flat bones are enlarged
-taller height and larger hands/feet/skull
What is acromegaly?
-excess of GH develops after epiphyseal plates close
-height doesn't change
-long bones dont grow longer
-hands/feet/skull grow and enlarge
-flat bones expand from periosteal bone growth
What are clinical findings with excess growth hormone?
increased risk of malignancy
What is the thyroid stimulating hormone?
stimulates the synthesis and release of T3 & T4
What is the function of luteinizing hormone on females?
stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and synthesis of estrogen and progesterone in ovary
What is the function of luteinizing hormone on males?
stimulates synthesis and secretion of testosterone
What is the function of follicle stimulating hormone in females?
stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion
What is the function of follicle stimulating hormone in males?
stimulates sperm maturation in testicles
What is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormone?
stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortical hormones
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Endocrine Module 2 Part B
Endocrine Module 1 Part A
Endocrine Module 3 Part A
Endocrine Module 3 Part B
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Endocarditis Medication Options
Musculoskeletal Unit 1
Afib and A flutter
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
MSK EXAM II
Social Engineering Attack Scenarios