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The Ciliary Body (CB) functions to:
-Produce and secrete ______ humor
-influences __________ outflow
-________________ (the ability for the eye to focus near objects)
Aqueous humor is made in the __________ stroma (MACI) and outflows through ciliary __________ (epithelium) into the __________ chamber.
The CB influences aqueous outflow with the _________ muscle.
What are the 2 main portions of the CB?
-The anterior pars plicata
-The posterior pars plana
What are some further divisions of the pars plicata and pars plana? (Both contain these):
2 layered inner ___________
3 layers of ________ muscle
Where is supraciliaris located?
-Supracilaris is the outermost portion of the CB. It is located between the _________ and _____ _____. It is adjacent to the ________ and on top of the _______ ______.
Sclera and CB
The supraciliaris is ________ _________ tissue. This is important because it allows the CB to slide against the sclera without much friction (during accommodation).
What are the names of the 3 muscles of the CB from external (closest to the sclera) to internal?
Longitudinal muscle -> Radial muscle -> circular muscle
What is the origin of the longitudinal muscle?
Scleral spur/ Trabecular Meshwork
Since the longitudinal muscle has an origin in the Trabecular Meshwork, what happens to the TM during contraction of the longitudinal muscle?
Opens pores in the TM and increases aqueous outflow
Which muscle layer terminates in the epichorial star insertions? Where are those insertions located?
in Pars Plana
The Longitudinal muscle runs in the shape of a V. The wide base of the V is the ______ ______. The Apex of the V is the ____________ ______ in the pars plana region.
The radial muscle bundles feature a shorter, wider, and overlapping Vs. The base of the V is still the _______ _______. However, now the Apex of the V is ____________ tissue near the base of ciliary processes (the insertion)
What is the origin of the radial muscle?
Base of the V (scleral spur)
Contraction of the radial muscle pulls the lens ____________.
The circular muscle is located _________ of the CB as a 360 sphincter.
Contraction of the circular muscle decreases the ____________ space between the lens and ciliary processes.
When the ciliary muscle contracts, it causes a decrease in the circumlental space between the lens and ciliary processes. This causes the tension of the lens zonules to ___________ -> the lens ___________ and we now have accommodation.
The Valleys of Kunht lie between the ciliary ___________ of pars ___________.
The valleys of Kunht lie between the ciliary processes and pars plicata. The are the origination of the ____________.
The dentate processes are part of the ora _______ and not the CB. The ora ________ inserts into pars _______ by with its dentate processes.
The oral bays are formed between the ___________ processes and are part of the CB. Specially, they are a part of pars ________.
The CB stroma is located between _______ and __________ and forms the core of each ciliary process.
Muscle and epithelium
The ciliary stroma contains this important vascular structure.
MACI contains ________, ___________ (Leaky) capillaries.
*The CB stroma is _________ ___________ tissue between muscle and the ______ root.
Gap Junctions are located between the ______________ ciliary epithelium and the ______________ ciliary epithelium.
The gap junctions between the nonpigmented and pigmented ciliary epithelium allow for movement of _____ from plasma filatrate. The leads to aqueous formation in pars _________ region.
Between the inner and outer CB epithelium, which layer is more pigment?
-Outer PIGMENTED ciliary epithelium
-inner NONpigmented ciliary epithelium
*The outer pigmented ciliary epithelium is continuous with the anterior _____________ of the iris and the __________ pigmented epithelium.
+The inner pigmented ciliary epithelium is continues with the posterior ______________ epithelium of the iris and the _______________ retina.
Which CB epithelial layer contains more mitochondria and microvilli? (Which layer is specialized for secretion?)
The inner nonpigmented ciliary epithelium
Tight junctions between the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium at ________ ends (their neighboring cells of the same NPCE layer) allow for the formation of a blood-aqueous barrier.
Gap junctions are located between the ___________ ciliary epithelium and the _________ ciliary epithelium.
Gap junctions between the NPCE and PCE allow ions to pass from ______ -> ______-> _________-> and then finally aqueous humor passes into the _________ chamber.
The Gap Junctions that were just mentioned are in the NPCE and PCE of the pars __________.
The internal limiting membrane of the CB is the ____________ membrane lining the ______________ ciliary epithelium.
The significance of the internal limiting membrane (the basement membrane lining the NPCE) is that it is an attachment point for _________ in pars _______.
What are elastin fibers secreted by NPCE during embryological development?
The anterior zonules are from pars __________. They ____________ the lens. They originate from the Valleys of ________ on either side of a respective ciliary process and share a common line of attachment on the lens.
The posterior zonules are from pars _________. The extend through the anterior vitreous and insert into the Valleys of ___________.
*The posterior zonules don't attach to the _____ at all, yet they help it change its shape by helping the ____ assume its non-accommodative position.
What are 2 different arteriole types given off by MACI?
Anterior arterioles and Posterior arterioles
In which direction do the 2 different arteriole types (anterior and posterior) given of by MACI flow? Where do they eventually drain to?
Anterior to posited
a vortex vein
-Anterior arteries contain marginal capillaries at the ____ of ciliary processes.
-Posterior arteries contain capillaries in the __________ of ciliary processes.
-Anterior arterioles contain __________, _______ capillaries.
-Posterior arterioles contain _________, _________ capillaries.
-Anterior arterioles supply _______ for aqueous production.
-Posterior arterioles supply _______ musculature.
What is the other important anastomotic vascular circle (other than MACI) located in the CB?
Contrasting vasculature supply:
ACA >>>> LPCA
LPCA >>>> ACA
IMC: Serves the posterior __________.
MACI: Serves the ciliary ________ and anterior ciliary __________.
MACI: processes, musculature
The IMC provides ________ vessels to posterior musculature to help serve the anterior __________.
PNS pathway for accommodation:
Preganglionic fibers from _________ ________ nucleus of midbrain synapse in the _________ ganglion. -> postganglionic fibers leave as ______ ________ nerves -> pierce the ________ and travel in the ______________ space -> _________ space -> accommodation
SNS pathway to CB:
postganglionic fibers from _______ _________ ganglion -> _______ ________ ________ nerves
long posterior ciliary
These 2 SNS receptors in the NPCE increase aqueous formation:
β1 and β2
Α ___ receptor causes relaxation of the ciliary muscle induced accommodation. (The ciliary muscle caused accommodation, this receptor just causes it to relax and go back to a non-accommodative state).
___ receptors on CB blood vessels cause a decrease in aqueous formation by vasoconstriction.
The PNS has _________ effect on aqueous formation.
Sensory innervation pathway to the CB involves CN__ -> ____ -> ___________ nerve -> _______ _______ _________ nerves.
V -> V1 -> nasociliary -> long posterior ciliary
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