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Exam 2 Problem Questions
Terms in this set (61)
A diet high in saturated fat is a risk factor for elevated blood cholesterol
Drinking too much alcohol can lead to malnutrition
Before excess amino acids can be used for energy or stored as fat, they must be
Proteins are chemically different from carbohydrates or lipids because they contain nitrogen
Which statement best describes the characteristics of foods high in unsaturated fatty acids
they tend to be liquid at room temp
The major component that raises blood LDL cholesterol is
moderate drinking means consuming six or more drinks once a week
Proteins play important roles in the body, but do not
constitute part of bile used to emulsify fat
THEY DO: regulate fluid balance, act as chemical messenger, and enable movement
Proteins are made of 20 AA
The type of lipoprotein that carries dietary fat and other lipids through he lymph system is called
An individual who has PKU should not consume which of the following sugar substitutes
the enzyme system in the liver that metabolizes alcohol and drugs
Which of the following is a characteristic of a lactose-vegetarian diet
the risk of developing heart disease is reduced on the diet
Hydrochloric acid denatures proteins in the stomach
Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are
used to manufacture hormone-like susbatances called eicosanoids
Which of the following can help reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes
eating a high-fiber, plant-based diet
The LDL cholesterol present in foods is harmful to the heart
Three brush border enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates in the small intestine are
maltase, lactase, and sucrase
Alcohol is an essential nutrient
Growing children are in a state of negative nitrogen balance
which of the following doesnt contain dietary cholesterol
Cholesterol should be consumed daily to meet the body needs
The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is
A shot of whiskey contains more alcohol than a can of beer
Animal products are a good source of incomplete protein
which of the following is a good source of essential fatty acids linoleum acid and alpha-linolenic acid
Butter is a healthier choice than margarine.
A good source of viscous, soluble fiber is
Eating too much protein is associated with high blood cholesterol
The major component that raises blood LDL cholesterol is
Nuts are high in cholesterol
A high level of HDL cholesterol in the blood is considered heart healthy
The body can metabolize three alcoholic beverages per hour
Which of the following nonessential AA can also be considered a conditionally essential AA
To raise the level of HDL cholesterol,
Insoluble fiber promotes gastrointestinal health by increasing stool __________, which _________ stool transit time through the GI tract.
How does dietary fiber reduce blood cholesterol?
It binds bile acids in the intestinal tract, which increases removal of cholesterol from the blood.
Inability of the cells to respond to insulin is called __________.
Which blood glucose lab value is considered a "positive" test indicative of diabetes mellitus?
130 milligrams per deciliter (fasting)
Sugar alcohols do not cause tooth decay but they provide kilocalories.
What occurs when blood glucose levels rise following the ingestion of a glucose-rich meal?
the beta cells of the pancreas release insulin
Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regard to the role of insulin in blood glucose regulation?
Insulin is released when blood glucose levels rise.
Insulin stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscles.
Glucose requires insulin to cross cell membranes.
What is the role of the hormone glucagon in regulating blood glucose?
Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, the breakdown of glycogen, to increase blood glucose concentrations.
Blood glucose levels drop several hours after eating. The decrease in blood glucose stimulates the alpha cells of the pancreas to release the hormone glucagon. Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to yield glucose. Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose out of amino acids and other compounds. Glucose released into the bloodstream from glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis helps to increase the concentration of glucose in the blood back to normal.
Which of the following statements regarding fiber is TRUE?
Dietary fiber cannot be digested in the human digestive tract.
The human body lacks the enzyme necessary to digest dietary fiber into smaller, more absorbable molecules. Even though dietary fiber is not digestible, it plays a key role in keeping the gastrointestinal tract healthy. Insoluble, non-fermentable fiber binds water, which makes stools soft and bulky, thereby preventing constipation. Soluble, fermentable fiber is used as fuel for bacteria that help to keep the colon healthy.
Which of the following foods naturally contain(s) insoluble fibers that increase the bulk of digestive material and draw water into the large intestine, keeping the stools soft and moist?
whole grains, cereals, and fruit
Insoluble fiber is found in the cell membranes of plants foods, such as cereal grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Which of the following statements regarding glucose absorption is true?
Glucose is absorbed mostly through the lining of the small intestine.
Complex carbohydrates and disaccharides are digested into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose) by enzymes secreted by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and brush boarder membrane of the small intestine. Once absorbed, these monosaccharides enter the bloodstream. Fructose and galactose travel directly to the liver, where they are converted into glucose. Glucose stays in the blood and provides fuel for muscle and other cells.
During protein digestion, cholecystokinin from the duodenum stimulates release of trypsinogen, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsinogen from the
Protein synthesis is regulated by __________.
The action of proteases results in the formation of
tripeptides and dipeptides
Which of these foods has the LEAST dietary protein?
1 cup of sliced peaches
fruit has minimal protein... a cup of fruit contains virtually no protein at all
When is a healthy body in nitrogen balance?
when protein intake equals the amount of nitrogen excreted
Before amino acids can be used for energy production or converted to other compounds, the amine group must be removed and converted to ammonia (NH3) in a process called deamination.
Which of the following statements regarding protein absorption is true?
Protein is absorbed as single amino acids or small peptide chains by the process of active transport.
Specific carriers transport amino acids across the cell membrane into the intestinal cell. The process is known as active transport, and it requires energy. Protein chains are broken down into single amino acids or small peptide chains by proteases, secreted from the pancreas, inside the cell membrane. One of the many functions of protein is as a transport vehicle moving substances in and out of cell membranes.
Gastrin stimulates the release of ________ from the parietal cells and the inactive enzyme pepsinogen from the chief cells.
What is denaturation?
the uncoiling of the protein molecule by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
When proteins reach the stomach, they are uncoiled by hydrochloric acid in a process called denaturation. The hydrochloric acid denatures, or uncoils, the strands of amino acids. This allows pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme also released in the stomach, to hydrolyze proteins into shorter polypeptide chains and single amino acids.
Transport vehicles for lipids in the blood and lymph are called __________.
Transport vehicles for lipids are called lipoproteins and include chylomicrons, VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs.
A plant-based diet with minimal amounts of high-saturated-fat, high-sugar foods, coupled with daily physical activity, reflects the healthy habits of the Mediterranean lifestyle.
Which of the following fats cannot be digested?
Lecithin, an emulsifier, is an example of a ________ found in food and in the body.
During the digestive process, most lipids are absorbed
into the lymphatic system
Saturated fats are most likely to be found in
animal products such as meat and dairy
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