A town, city or village with the surrounding country side functioning as a distinct political unit.

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives


A system of government in which a small group holds power.


A domint figure in Athenian politics from 461 to 429.

Peloponnesian War

The conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism after the Persian Wars.


A Greek philosopher who created the socratic method of questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athenian youth and committing heresy.


A Greek city-state known for its direct democracy.


A Greek city-state known for its militaristic mindset and harsh (Spartan) lifestyle.

Persian War

Persia attacked Athens for aiding Ionia; and the Greek city states formed the Delian league to combat Persia.


Heavily armed foot soldiers of Athens


The Greatest historian of the ancient world, he documented the Peloponnesian war.


A form of government where the leader is not a monarch, and certain citizens have the right to vote.


the Roman ruling class.


A government where three people rule and share equal power.


Less wealthy landowners, merchants and craftsmen. They had a council of their own and received the right to pass laws for all in 287 BC.


the head male (eldest) representative of a Roman family (anyone under his hand--this includes extended family and slaves), only one with legal capacity; all family property in his hands.


Badly constructed concrete buildings the Roman poor lived in. Often collapsed.


2 of these were elected annually to run the government and lead the army.


In charge of civil law as it applied to other citizens.


Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate.


One of the original triumvirates, when one dies and the other was picked by popular vote to be the dictator, ____ went rogue and crossed the Rubicon.

Pax Romana

The period of time when there were 5 good Roman emperors in a row. The Roman peace lasted almost 100 years.

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