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Psy hw ch3
Terms in this set (49)
The three main parts of the self are ___.
self knowledge, the agent self, and the interpersonal self
The interpersonal self or public self is a part of the self that ___.
helps the person connect socially to other people
Which specific part of the self enables decision-making?
The agent self
The self appears at the interface between ____ and ____ to which the person belongs
inner biological processes, the sociocultural network
Research suggests that __ tend to have more of an interdependent self-construal, whereas ____ tend to have more of an independent self-construal.
Eastern people; Western people
You are a participant in a study, and the researcher asks you to work on a puzzle while sitting front of a mirror, and that your performance will be videotaped. Given these two pieces of information, it is most likely that the researcher is trying to _____.
increase your self-awareness
Social psychologists distinguish at least two main kinds of self awareness: _______.
public self-awareness and private self awareness
Increased self-awareness makes people _____.
act more consistently with their attitudes about different issues
_____ tends to make people more aware of positive, culturally desirable standards and tends to make them try harder to behave in positive, culturally desirable ways.
The process by which one controls and modifies the self is known as _____
How does the self-concept relate to others' perceptions of you? Research suggest that _____.
there usually is good match between your self-concept and how you think others regard you
In Nisbett and Wilson's (1977) studies on consumers' awareness of purchasing decisions, ____.
people made choices based on whether they saw the product last, but thought they made the choice based on product color or softness
Jetta thinks she is doing well in class because she is getting a "B" for her tests. Then she finds out that nearly everybody else is getting an "A." She realizes that she needs to work harder to improve her grades. This is an example of the theory of ____.
Sally lives in a relatively well-off neighborhood. Most of her friends live i smaller home in poorer neighborhoods, so Sally thinks that she is wealthy. When Sally compares her home with those of her friends, she is engaging in _____.
downward social comparison
Jason belongs to a conservative religious family, and strongly feels that homosexuality is wrong and immoral, although he has never met as homosexual person. After arriving at college, he meets lots of new friends, a few of whom are homosexual. Jason find that he really enjoys spending time with them. When hr is about to graduate, Jason feels that homosexuality cannot be wrong because some of his closest friends are gay and he realizes that they are not immoral. Which of the following concepts can BEST explain Jason's change in attitude about homosexuality?
The over-justification effect occurs when ___.
people are extrinsically rewarded for something they intrinsically enjoy doing
Sarah is the only African American in her class. Based on the working self-concept which of the following assumptions about Sarah is most likely true?
Sarah is most likely to feel pressure to disprove the myth that African Americans perform poorly in their classes.
Frances schedules an appointment with a personal trainer to get a thorough assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of her body. She intends to run a 10K marathon after a few months and wants to be in the best shape possible for this event. In this scenario, Frances is most likely to be driven by a(n) ____.
The self-enhancement motive has an especially strong _____ appeal.
Automatic egotism refers to ______.
the response by the duplex mind that "everything good is me, and everything bad is not me"
Vanessa has an important presentation at work, but she fears that she will do a poor job due to her stage fright. The evening before the presentation, she goes to a bar with her friends and spends the entire night there. She now has a severe hangover during the morning of the presentation. Social psychologists refer to Vanessa's behavior as ____.
Information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better. This is known as the _____.
Suppose you want your brother to memorize the word "conniving." Would he remember the word better if you asked him if he was ever conniving?
Yes, he would remember the word better after associating it with himself.
In the context, of revising self-knowledge, changing the way you think about yourself is difficult because _____.
people see other people in terms of stable traits
Research suggests that the most effective way to change one's self-concept is by ______.
changing one's social environment
Drug rehabilitation programs often require that patients discontinue contact with old "using" friends, and maintaining friendships with new "clean" friends only. One reason this makes sense from a social psychological standpoint is that by changing their social networks in this way, _____.
patients will have a better shot at creating new, more positive self-concepts
Wanda, who is constantly ill, remembers herself as a sickly child. She recalls she was at home with a cold at least six or seven times a year. However, if we were able to go back in time and see for ourselves, we would probably find that _____.
Wanda was not sick that often
Ted tends to think of himself as a workaholic and perfectionist. When he thinks back on his college years, he remembers studying hard for exams and getting good grades. But he tends to forget about the time he nearly failed a class, and disregards the many nights he spent partying. The way that Ted thinks about his college years illustrates the fact that people ____.
revise or distort their memories to fit their current self-concepts
Compared to people with high self-esteem, people with low self-esteem have _____.
similar life goals, but less confidence in themselves
Since the 1970s, it appears that average self-esteem scores in the United States have been ____.
Research on self-esteem in the United States indicates that ______.
self-esteem is unrealistically high
People who are clinically depressed tend to _____.
have an accurate view of who likes them and who doesn't
Marisol is pretty equal in terms of taking the blame for failures and crediting herself for successes. She is also fairly accurate when it comes to judging how much control she has over events in her life. Additionally, she has a fairly accurate idea of how much various people like her. Marisol also has low self-esteem and fails to interpret events in a positive manner. In context of reality and illusion, Marisol may have _____.
Mental tricks that people use to help themselves believe things that are false are called _____.
Most of the time, people tend to ____ when they are successful (e.g., when they win a tennis match) and ____ when they are unsuccessful (e.g., when they lose a tennis match).
take credit; blame someone or something else
The tendency for people to take credit for their success but blame failures on other people or on outside is known as _____.
the self-serving bias
Faith grew up in Miami, had a pet as a child, is an excellent pinball player, and sometimes drinks too much at parties. In order to keep her positive illusions intact, which of the following statements is she most likely to believe?
Drinking too much at parties is common and acceptable behavior.
You are a terrible athlete but you are great at negotiating. According to the self-serving bias, which of the following statements is most likely true of your beliefs?
Negotiating is a rare skill, and thus immensely valuable.
Compared to people with low self-esteem, people with high self-esteem most likely _____.
think they are smarter, but don't score higher on IQ tests
Research on self-esteem and sexuality suggests that for young women, high self-esteem is related to ____.
understanding the dangers of risky sexual behavior
The sociometer theory of self-esteem suggests that personal self-esteem _____.
functions as an indicator of how socially acceptable we are
When are narcissists MOST likely to be aggressive?
After they find out they didn't get a job they really wanted
Compared to other people, narcissists _____.
are not as loyal to their relationship partners
Research suggests that pursuing self-esteem as an end in itself can _____.
have harmful consequences
Self-presentation is best defined as any behavior that is _____ intended to make _____ impression on others.
consciously or unconsciously; some sort of
When people male self-enhancing claims about themselves, they will _____.
present themselves in the best light that they thin will reasonably be believed
Who is MOST likely to go vote in an election?
A person who has thought about the importance of being a voter
People sometimes take life-threatening risks, such as not wearing helmets when riding motorcycles, having unprotected sex, sunbathing against a doctor's advice, and driving far over the speed limit, in order to "look cool." This best demonstrates the strong power of _____.
With regard to social roles, human beings tend to _____.
adopt and drop roles as the situation calls for it
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