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Exam 2 Health participants
Terms in this set (52)
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
What's the only facial bone that can move?
Lower mandible (jaw)
12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck
C1 - olfactory
C3 - oculomotor
Constriction & dilation of the pupil; eye movement
C4 - trochlear
C5 - trigeminal
Muscles for chewing; Somatosensory information (touch, pain) from the face and head
C7 - facial
Secretion of saliva & taste; somatosensory information from ear; controls muscles used in facial expression.
C9 - glossopharyngeal
Somatosensory information from tongue, tonsil, pharynx; controls some muscles used in swallowing.
C10 - vagus
Sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate); swollowing
C11 - Spinal Accessory
Controls muscles used in head movement.
C12 - hypoglossal
Controls muscles of tongue
Assessing child's ears
Back and down
Assessing adult ears
Back and up
right and left lungs and their several lobes
Right have three lobes while the left have two
child emotional abuse
any pattern of behavior that harms a child's emotional development or sense of self-worth. It includes frequent belittling, rejection, threats, and withholding love and support
failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
Child physical abuse
physical injury resulting from punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child. Even if the parent or caregiver did not intend to harm the child, such acts are considered abuse when done purposefully
child sexual abuse
includes fondling a child's genitals, incest, penetration, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and commercial exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials
willful infliction of force that results in bodily harm, pain, and/or impairment on a person age 65 years or older. Examples include pushing, slapping, hitting, shaking, burning, and rough handling
physical harm (actual or potential) to a person age 65 years or older because of failure to provide for the person's well-being. Examples include inadequate feeding and hydration, unsanitary living conditions, and poor personal hygiene
intimate partner violence (IPV)
physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse
a person mandated by law to report abuse or neglect to the proper authorities
infliction of emotional and/or mental anguish by humiliation, coercion, and threats and/or lack of social stimulation. Examples include yelling, threats of harm, threats of withholding basic medical and/or personal care, and leaving the person alone for long periods
Who should a nurse ask whether they experienced IPV?
differentiate abuse from neglect
Abuse is the intentional infliction of harm on someone, whether it is physical, emotional, or sexual harm. On the other hand, neglect refers to the failure to provide the necessary care for an individual, resulting in that individual's injury or illness.
Identify commonly used screening tool for older adult abuse
-Has anyone prevented you from getting food, clothes, medication, glasses, hearing aids, or medical care or from being with people you wanted to be with?
-Have you been upset because someone talked to you in a way that made you feel shamed or threatened?
-Has anyone tried to force you to sign papers or use your money against your will?
Commonly used screening questions for intimate partner violence (IPV)
-When you and your partner argue, are you ever afraid of him or her?
-Does your partner try to control you? Where you go? Who you see? How much money you can have?
-Has your partner (or anyone) ever slapped you, pushed you, hit you, kicked you, or otherwise physically hurt you?
The most common mental health problems that result from intimate partner violence
-post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
-problems w/ substance abuse
The most common physical health problems that result from intimate partner violence
Important elements of the child's medical history when assessing for suspected child maltreatment
-Has the child had previous hospitalizations or injuries, any chronic medical conditions?
-Does the child take any medications that cause easy bruising?
-Does the child have a history of repeated visits to the hospital? was there a delay in seeking care for anything other than minor injury?
-Is there history of substance abuse in the family? financial/social stress?
-What are the methods of discipline?
Long-term consequences of child maltreatment
-Bruises, lacerations, fractures, abusive head trauma
-Effects on a child's quality of life that can lead to overall poor health that can last into adulthood (mental health issues, incidence of suicide attempts, substance abuse, risk of perpetrating abuse as an adult)
Risk factors that may contribute to child maltreatment
-community violence, substance abuse in the family, social isolation
-Disabilities or chronic illness in the child that can increase caregiver's burden
-Parents lack of understanding of children's needs, and of child's development
-Poverty and other socioeconomic disadvantages (unemployment & low educational achievement)
-IPV, young single, non-biological parents
-Poor parent-child relationships/ negative interactions
ABCDE of Melanoma Detection
A-asymmetry; B-border irregularity; C-color; D- Diameter of more than 6mm; E- Evolution of lesion over time
List 5 functions of the skin
protection, regulates temperature, exerts waste, sensory organ, and forms vitamin D in presence of av light.
Describe the appearance of pallor, erythema, cyanosis, and jaundice in both light-skinned and dark-skinned person.
Pallor: Light Skinned: light, Dark Skinned: brown = yellowish brown, black = ashen gray
Erythema: Light Skinned: red, bright pink, Dark Skinned: purplish tinge but difficult to see
Cyanosis: Light Skinned: dusky blue, Dark Skinned: dark but dull, lifeless
Jaundice: Light Skinned:yellow in sclerae, hard palate, mucous membranes and skin, Dark Skinned: check sclera for yellow, hard and soft palate and palms of hands
Checking for skin temperature is best accomplished by using:
the dorsal surface of the hands
You are assessing capillary refill. The room is warm. Which finding would be considered normal?
major neck muscles
sternomastoid and the trapezius (inervated by cranial nerve XI)
Explain the statement that normal visual acuity is 20/20
This means that a patient can stand at 20 feet and read what a person with normal vision can read at 20 feet.
Identify common age related changes in the eye.
-Pupil size decreases.
-Lens elasticity decreases.
-Decrease in accommodation.
-The vitreous humor does not recycle as frequently.
Discuss the most common causes of decreased visual function in the older adult.
-Cataract formation: Lens opacity, proteins clumping in the lens; hard for light to get through.
-glaucoma: increase in ocular pressure; gradual loss of peripheral vision; more common in men than women.
-macular degeneration: Age related MD causes vision loss in older adults.
Describe abnormal findings of tissue color that are possible on conjunctiva and sclera, and describe their significance.
general reddening, cyanosis of the lower lids, yellowing of the sclera
Explain the rationale for testing the strabismus during early childhood.
Brain begins to suppress data from the weak eye and causes visual acuity the deteriorate in the weak eye.
Relate the anatomic differences that place the infant at greater risk of middle ear infections.
The low set Eustachian tube is angled upwards, shorted, wider and more horizontal than adults. This does not allow fluids to drain easily.
Explain the positioning of normal ear alignment in the child.
The top of the pinna should match an imaginary line extending from the corner of the eye to the occiput. The ear should also be positioned within 10 degrees of vertical.
Define otosclerosis and presbycusis.
otosclerosis- hardening causing foot plate of stapes to become fixed.
prebycusis - gradual sensorineural loss caused by nerve degeneration in inner ear.
Name the functions of the nose.
3. Warming of Air
4. Humidification of Air
5. Filtering of Air
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