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11 terms

#15 Aldehydes & Ketones

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carbonyl group
1. a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen
2. C=O is polar, trigonal planar 120°
3. aldehydes & ketones have carbonyl groups attached
5 carbonyl compounds
1. aldehydes
2. ketones
3. carboxylic acid
4. esters
5. amide
aldehydes
1. carbonyl is attached to at least one hydrogen
2nd bond = hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic
2. -CHO always at end of carbon chain
3. cyclic aldehydes are NOT possible
ketones
1. carbonyl attached directly to 2 carbon atoms that is part of an alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic
2. C=O always in middle of chain
3. cyclic ketones are possible, but not heterocyclic
carboxylic acid
1. one bond attached to hydroxyl group
2nd bond = hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic
ester
1. one bond attached to oxygen, which can be attached to an alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic
2nd bond = hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic
amide
1. one bond attached to a nitrogen
aldehyde naming
1. the longest carbon chain that includes the carbon atom of the carbonyl group = parent
2. replace "e" with "al"
3. number parent chain by assigning 1 to carbonyl atom. DO NOT show number 1, b/c always assumed to be 1 (carbonyl always has to be at the end of the chain)
4. determine and number substituents
alcohol group substituent name
hydroxy
ketone naming
1. the longest carbon chain that includes the carbon atom of the carbonyl group = parent
2. replace "e" with "one"
3. number parent chain by assigning the lowest number to the carbonyl atom. Indicate the number of the carbonyl, EXCEPT for cyclic. Cyclic assumes the carbonyl is in the #1 position show number 1, b/c always assumed to be 1
4. determine and number substituents
ketone: common names
1. acetone = CH₃-C(=O)-CH₃
2. other common names = name hydrocarbon groups attached + ketone. Ex. ethyl methyl ketone