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420G Exam 1 Practice Questions
Terms in this set (81)
General components of biological control system
Receptor, integrating center, and effector
The lag in oxygen at the beginning of exercise is known as ____ and provides evidence that the initial ATP Production has an ___ contribution.
Oxygen deficit, anaerobic
The organelle that regulates protein synthesis
An endergonic reaction
A chemical reaction that requires energy to be added to the reactants before the reaction will take place
Enzymes are catalysts that increase the rate of reaction by __
lowering the energy of activation
A respiratory exchange ratio of 0.70 indicates that ___ is the primary fuel source being utilized
The primary source of fat used during low-intensity exercise is __
plasma free-fatty acid
During a sixty minutes constant load, submaximal exercise, the body temperature reaches a plateau after 35-45 minutes. This is an example of __
___ refers to a reaction where an electron is removed, and a __ reaction refers to a reaction where an electron is added
How many ATP are invested during the investment phase of glycolysis if glucose is being used?
What is true about a single Krebs Cycle?
It occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, 1 ATP is directly produced, 3 NADH + H are produced and 1 FADH2 is produced.
The addition of hydrogen atoms to pyruvate forms lactate and NAD. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ___
During exercise body temperature increases and thus ___ enzyme activity
The precision with which a control system maintains homeostasis can be determined by (what is gain?)
dividing the amount of correction needed by the amount of abnormality that exists after correction
What is true about enzyme activity?
Enzymes interact with specific substrates using a lock and key model
Glycolysis takes place in the ___ of the cell and the Kreb's cycle takes place in the ___ of the cell.
Cytoplasm, mitochondrial matrix
During stage II of carbohydrate metabolism (the formation of Acetyl Co-A) how many ATP are produced?
Exercise can improve homeostatic control via ____________ which results in improved function of an existing homeostatic system.
From the standpoint of oxygen cost, the body prefers to use ___ as a fuel
The oxygen deficit of an endurance trained individual will be ___ an untrained individual
The maintenance of a constant internal environment
Most control systems of the body work via __
The organelle that is considered the powerhouse of the cell is __
Stored polysaccharides in muscle and other tissues in animals is called what?
Hydrogens are frequently removed from nutrient substrates in biogenergetic pathways and are transported by carrier molecules. Two biologically important carrier molecules are __
NAD and FAD
The simplest and most rapid method to produce ATP during exercise is through
The process of breaking down triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acid is known as beta oxidation.
What energy sound does NOT have a caloric of 4 kcal of energy per gram?
The addition of two hydrogen atoms to pyruvic acid forms lactic acid and NAD, which can be used again in glycolysis. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ________________.
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
The rate limited enzyme of the ATP-PC system is
When examining the relationship between exercise intensity and fuel utilization, the crossover concept refers to the exercise intensity at which (hint: exercise intensity is increasing)
energy derived from carbohydrates exceeds that of fat
The rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis is ___
The rate limiting enzyme of the electron transport chain is __
The rate limiting enzyme of the Krebs Cycle is ___
_____ is the process of oxidizing fatty acids to form acetyl-CoA
Enzyme activity can be altered (increased or decreased) by the following
a change in temperature
Modulators increase or decrease enzymes activity. In the control of energy metabolism, ________ is a classic example of an inhibitor and _________ is an example of a substance that would stimulate enzyme activity
Triglycerides are composed of one molecule of glycerol and ____
3 fatty acid molecules
Maximal oxygen uptake is classically measured by graded exercise tests and is reached when the power output or intensity of the exercise increases and there is no further increase in the oxygen consumption or the increase in oxygen uptake is less than _______________.
Glycolysis occurs in the ____ of the cell
If the initial fuel source is a glycogen molecule, ________ ATP are invested, _______, NADH are produced, and _______ FADH are produced during the energy investment phase of glycolysis.
1, 0, 0
If the initial fuel source is a glycogen molecule, ________ ATP are produced, _______, NADH are produced, and _______ FADH are produced during the energy generation phase of glycolysis.
4, 2, 0
If the initial fuel source is a glycogen molecule, ________ ATP are produced, _______, NADH are produced, and _______ FADH are produced during Stage II of carbohydrate metabolism (ie. the formation of Acetyl Coenzyme A).
0, 2, 0
If the initial fuel source is a glycogen molecule, ________ ATP are produced, _______, NADH are produced, and _______ FADH are produced during Stage III of carbohydrate metabolism (ie. the Krebs Cycle).
2, 6, 2
If the initial fuel source is a glucose molecule, and all conditions are favorable for maximum ATP production (ie. Glycolysis is not happening rapidly and there is adequate oxygen in the cell) then we can expect that ______ ATP will be directly accumulated, _____ NADH will be produced, and _______ FADH will be produce, thus the total amount of ATP we can expect is ________.
4, 10, 2, 32
The movement of ___ hydrogens through the ATP synthase provides enough energy to produce 1 ATP
The electron transport chain is located in the ___ of the cell
inner mitochondrial membrane
It is often difficult to identify the exact lactate threshold, thus the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often used to help determine training intensities using lactate concentrations. OBLA is defined as the exercise intensity when blood lactate reach _________ mmol/L.
Hydrogens are deposited from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space using proton pumps. If FADH2 serves as the electron donator, ____________ hydrogens are deposited by the first hydrogen pump, ____________ hydrogens are deposited by the second pump, and ___________ hydrogens are deposited by the third pump.
0, 4, 2
The primary source of fat as a fuel for higher intensity exercise is ___
A respiratory exchange ratio (R or RER) can be used to estimate fuel utilization during steady state exercise. An R value of 0.95 indicates that the majority of the fuel used is ______________________.
There are several explanations for the lactate threshold. Which of the following is not one of these explanations?
Deceleration of glycolysis
The rapid portion of EPOC is due to what?
Replenishing of muscle and blood O2 stores
The primary source of carbs during low-intensity exercise is __
Lactate can be converted to glucose in the ___ by a process known as the Cori Cycle
Nerve fibers that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system are called ___________ fibers.
When the neuron is considered at rest, almost all of the _________ gates are closed, and a few of the _________ gates open, which makes the resting potential more negative.
The cell membrane has a sodium/potassium pump that helps maintain the resting membrane potential and helps to generate the potential since it exchanges __
3 sodium ions for every 2 potassium ions
The summing of many EPSP's from several pre-synaptic neurons is called ___
Repolarization is the results of the ___ gates opening which makes the insides of the neuron more ___
Neurons can be divided into three basic parts
cell body, dendrites, and axon
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) cause _________________ which makes the resting membrane "more" _______________.
_______________ are joint proprioceptors that are sensitive to touch and pressure, are initially strongly stimulated and then slightly adapt sending a steady signal until the movement is complete, and are the most abundant type of joint proprioceptors
Free nerve endings
The structure(s) of the brain believed to be responsible for forming a "rough draft" of the movement plan is/are _________.
In general, the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system tends to __________.
inhibit organs (slow heart rate)
During voluntary movement, a rough draft is generated and refined. The _______ is responsible for fast movements and the basal ganglia is responsible for slow or deliberate movement.
The motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates is called a
During a reflex action flexor muscles are stimulated to withdraw a limb from the point of injury and simultaneously extensor (antagonist) muscles are inhibited. This simultaneous excitatory and inhibitory activity is known as
somatic motor function
The ___________ is an organ located in the inner ear and is responsible for maintaining general equilibrium.
The motor cortex is concerned with voluntary movement and is located within ___
A ___ innervation ratio is required for fine motor control
The ____________ is the portion of the brain that controls many metabolic functions including cardiovascular control.
The preganglionic neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system is ______ and the preganglionic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic is _______.
The postganglionic neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system is ______ and the postganglionic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic is _______.
In general, motor units are recruited inn an orderly fashion as a function of their ____
The cell bodies of the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system are found in the _________________.
lumbar and thoracic region of the spinal cord
Increases in heart rate (up to ~ 100 bts/min) is primarily due to
3 factors discussed in class that influence fuel selection during exercise
Nutritional intake, training status of the individual and session intensity and duration
Fat is an excellent storage fuel for what 3 reasons?
stored dry, stores are large, energy dense so 1g = 9kcal
Saturated fat called Lauric is a 12 carbon fatty acid.
How many cleaves, ATP you invest, and total number of ATP produced?
Cleave = 5
ATP you invest to activate = 2
Total number of ATP completely oxidized = 78
Fat burns in the Flame of Carbohydrate
During exercise, carb stores are depleted which leads to a decrease in glycolysis and Krebs Cycle intermediates.
A decrease in Acetyl Co-A and pyruvate
Decreases ATP production and is the reason for muscle fatigue.
Decreased fat oxidation since fat can only be metabolized via Krebs Cycle oxidation, which is why "fats burn in the flame of carbohydrates".
However, when there are adequate carbohydrate stores, this leads to a 9-fold increase in Krebs Cycle intermediates.
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The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Language Of Medicine
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