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Weathering and Erosion Vocabulary
MUST use all terms, there are 27. By: Jacqueline Arnold
Terms in this set (27)
1.The solid rock under soil. WEathering may break down parts of this to make soil. 2.The solid rock of the Earth's surface that has not been weathered.
1. This occurs when natural acids slowly eat into a rock and break it apart. 2. The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. EX: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living oganisms, and acid rain.
Farmers plow their fields and plant their crops across the slope of the land instead of up and down the slope.
Soil moves slowly downhill because of gravity.
To decay or braek down into soil.
1. The process in which moving sedimentary materialslows down, or from ice that melts. 2. This occurs when silt, sand, and other materials are carried away by flowing water and deposited a t other places on the Earth's surface.
1. A type of physical weathering in which rocks are gradually worn down. 2. The process by which material is worn away by forces such as glaciers, wind, and waves.3. The wearing-down effect of rain and wind on rock.
Something in nature that causes action.
1.Method for reducing soil erosion; plant stalks are left in the field after harvesting and the next year's crop is planted within the stalks without plowing. 2. Farming method where seeds are planted silts cut into the soil.
Dead and decaying plants and animals.
The result of th exposure of minerals containing iron to water and oxygen, forming rust.
Force that pushes against an object.
A mixture of weathered rock, decaying organic matter, minerla fragments, water, and air. Soil can take thousands of years to form.
1. A side veiw ''slice'' of the different layers of Earth 2.The different layers that make up soil.
1. The layer of soil between the topsoil and bedrock.
2.This is the second layer and is under top soil
1. Farming method which involves changing the contour of the land to preventthe erosion of topsoil. 2. Farmers build a series of broad, flat ridges that run down a hillside like stairs.
1. The first 4 to 10 inches of soil. It contains the most humus and is usually a dark-brown color. 2. Top layer of soil rich with the remains of plants and animals.
The process in which rocks are broken down into smaller peices by ice, water, the wind, changes in temperature, plants, animals, or by chemicals.
1. A specific layer or stratum of soil or subsoil in a vertical cross section of land. 2. Each layer in a soil profile- Horizon A (top layer), Horizon B (middle layer), Horizon C ( bottom layer).
The part of soil made up of decayed leaves and organic matter that helps plants grow.
1. When water dets in a crack in rock and freezes. The ice expands and makes the crack bigger. 2. Mechanical weathering of rock by freezing.
1.A process that carries dissolved minerals downwards in the soil.
2. Water moving down through the soil and carrying away dissolved minerals and nutrients from the topsoil.
Twigs, leaves, and other organic matter that help prevent erosion and hold water and may eventually be changed into humus by decomposing organisms.
A type of topsoil which is a mixture of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter. This is excellent for growing plants and many farmers use this on their farms.
Downhill movements of Earth material caused by gravity.
1. Weathering that does not involve changes in the chemical makeup of rocks. 2. Process that changes the physical form of rock.
Methods of Soil Conservation
The protection of fertile topsoil from erosion by wind and water and the replacement of nutrients in the soil, as by means of cover crops, terracing, and corp rotation.
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