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abnormal psychology-chapter 3: clinical interview
Terms in this set (66)
Dr. Swan listened carefully to Joyce's speech pattern, noting its speed, content, and continuity. He noticed no loose association but did hear indications of delusional thoughts and visual hallucinations
Andrew arrived at the clinic accompanied by police, who had found him dressed only in shorts although the temperature was 23°F. He was reported to the police by someone who saw him walking slowly down the street, making strange faces, and talking to himself.
appearance and behavior
When Lisa was brought to Dr. Miller's office, he asked if she knew the date and time, her identity, and where she was.
Dr. Jones viewed as inappropriate Tim's laughter after discussing his near-fatal incident and noted that Tim appeared to be elated.
mood and affect
Holly's vocabulary and memory seemed adequate, leading Dr. Adams to estimate that she was of average intelligence.
EEG to show electrical activity in the brain of someone who has seizures
not reliable, not valid
Structured interviews with definite answers
not reliable, not valid
t or f: The classical categorical approach to classification assumes there is only one set of causative factors per disorder with no overlap between disorders, and the prototypical approach uses essential, defining features, as well as a range of other characteristics.
t or f: As in earlier versions, DSM-5 retains a distinction between organically and psychologically based disorders.
t or f: The DSM-5 eradicated the problem of comorbidity, the identification of two or more disorders in an individual at one time, which was previously caused by imprecise categories.
false - this is still a problem
t or f: If two or more clinicians agree on a patient's classification, the assessments are said to be valid.
t or f: A danger in psychological classification is that a diagnostic label might be used to characterize personally the total individual.
the systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in an individual with a possible psychological disorder
the process of determining that those factors meet all criteria for a specific psychological disorder.
type of psychological test in which the patient responds to ambiguous stimuli by projecting unconscious thoughts
type of psychological test in which the patient takes a self-report questionnaire designed to assess personal traits
type of psychological test which provides a score (IQ)
any effort to construct groups or categories and to assign objects or people to the categories on the basis of their shared attributes or relation
_____ is based on a prototypical approach in which certain essential characteristics are identified but certain "nonessential" variations do not necessarily change the classification.
what are the DSM 5 categories based on?
empirical findings to identify criteria for each diagnosis
Degree to which a measurement is consistent, for example, over time or among different raters.
Degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure.
Relatively brief preliminary test of a client's judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview.
mental status exam
Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.
Action by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses. Also called self-observation.
Psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity.
Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks.
Measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal.
Close and detailed investigation of an individual emphasizing what makes that person unique (compare with nomothetic strategy).
Identification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws (compare with idiographic strategy).
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena.
In a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders.
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis.
Classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause.
classical categorical approach (pure)
System for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics.
The extent to which a disorder is found among a patient's relatives.
Presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time.
what does the value of assessment depend on?
reliability, validity, standardization
Application of certain standards to ensure consistency across different measurements.
what are the five categories of a mental status exam?
1. appearance and behavior
2. thought processes
3. mood and affect
4. intellectual functioning
what is sensorium?
general awareness of our surroundings
what is a drawback of a semistructured interview?
may inhibit patient from volunteering useful info that is not directly relevant to questions being asked
when may behavioral assessment be more approriate than interview?
when assessing individuals who are not old enough/skilled enough to report problems
what is the goal of identifying and observing target behaviors in behavioral assessment?
determine the factors that influence them
what are the ABC's of observational assessment?
antecedent, behavior, consequence
what is a problem with informal observation?
it relies on the observer's recollection/interpretation of events
what is reactivity
behavior you want to increase tend to increase when they are self-monitored or when you know someone is watching
what is the idea behind the TAT
people will reveal unconscious mental processes in stoires about the pictures
MMPI is based on an _____ approach, which gives little room for interpretation
how does the MMPI review responses?
patterns are reviewed to see if they resemble patterns from groups of peopler with specific disorders (schizophrenia)
neuropsychological tests assess brain dysfunction by observing ____ of the dysfunction on person's ability to perform certain tasks
what is potential issue of neuropsychological test?
can give false positive/negative
is the classical categorical approach approriate for the complexity of psychological disorders?
what approach is the DSM 5 based on?
what does content validity mean?
if you create criteria for a diagnosis, it should reflect the way most experts in the field think of that disorder as opposed to another one
what were major changes in the DSM III?
- attempted to take atheoretical approach to diagnosis by relying on precise descriptions of disorders as they presented to clinicians
- specificity and detail of criteria for identifying a disorder made it possible to study their reliability and validity
what is the most substantial change in the DSM 4?
there was no more distinction between organically-based and psychologically-based disorders
____ is a crucial determination in making any diagnosis
criticisms of the dsm 5?
Emphasize reliability, sometimes at the expense of validity
Complexity of categorizing psychopathology
Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that person's behaviors.
System of naming and classification (for example, of specimens) in science.
Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp.
Sophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function.
Process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these to data for large numbers of people.
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