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Biology ch. 19 test
Terms in this set (31)
A pattern in which species experience long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change is called
A layer of sedimentary rock that is higher in iron than an older rock layer beneath it indicates that
oxygen levels in early oceans were rising when the sediment formed
A species at equilibrium migrates into a new environment and soon begins a period of rapid evolution. The type of evolution that occurred is most likely
Which of these facts about mitochondria and chloroplasts constitutes support for the endosymbiotic theory?
Their ribosomes resemble the ribosomes of bacteria.
Fossils of the coelacanth, a primitive fish, date back about 140 million years. Modern coelacanths are virtually identical to their fossil ancestors. This species most likely evolves through the process of
Which of the following correctly describes changes in the history of life on Earth?
geological forces and living organisms have shaped the physical features of the planet
Earth's continental plates can move as little as 3 centimeters per year. The Quaternary period has lasted for 2 million years. What is the minimum distance in KILOMETERS that a continental plate has moved during the Quaternary period?
which of the following statements must be true for a clade to survive?
The rate of speciation must be greater than or equal to the rate of extinction.
Master control genes, or Hox genes, affect evolution
Through small changes during embryonic development that lead to different body plans
What must be true about an index fossil whose absolute age is used as a reference for other fossils?
The absolute age of the index fossil was determined by radioactive dating or another absolute method.
The endosymbiotic theory was proposed because mitochondria, chloroplasts, and free-living prokaryotes have similar
A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone
Which of these labels for fossils in a museum display contains an error
Early Mammal (middle paleozoic)
To compare the relative ages of rocks, scientists sometimes use an easily recognized and widespread fossil type called
Earth's early atmosphere was primarily composed of
carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen.
Genetic diversity in prokaryotes is primarily due to
Mutation in DNA.
In Figure 19-2, flowers and pollinating insects are examples of
Why did oceans not exist on Earth nearly 4 billion years ago?
Water remained as a gas because the Earth was still very hot.
Which of the following clades is most likely to survive a series of catastrophic events over time?
A clade with many distantly related and diverse species.
Which of the following adaptations is most likely the result of coevolution?
a curved beak in a bird that eats from a single species of flower.
Fossils usually provide paleontologists with information about each of the following except an organism's
Trilobites are useful as index fossils, because each species existed for a
Short period of time, over a wide geographic range.
Speciation within a clade is an example of
a macroevolutionary pattern
The fossil record shows
that most organisms that ever lived on Earth are now extinct
The Australian flying phalanger is a marsupial flying squirrel. Its appearance, behavior, environment, and diet closely resemble those of the American Flying Squirrel, a placental mammal. This resemblance is most likely due to
the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called
Which of the following statements about the effect of early organisms on Earth's environment is true?
the first photosynthetic organisms caused Earth to cool as they converted carbon dioxide to oxygen
The endosymbiotic theory proposes that mitochondria in eukaryotic cells arose from
endosymbiotic prokaryotes that metabolized oxygen.
The endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from
communities formed by prokaryotes.
Sexual reproduction contributes to genetic diversity by allowing
genes from two parents to be mixed and remixed before being passed to offspring.
Gradualism is a pattern of evolution in which
a species evolves at a slow, steady pace
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