History Final - People

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Hannibal
Carthaginian general. In the second Punic War he attacked Italy by crossing the Alps. He repeatedly defeated the Romans, although he failed to take Rome itself. After being recalled to Africa, he was defeated at Zama by Scipio in 202
Scipio
Roman general and politician. He was successful in concluding the second Punic War, by defeating the Carthaginians in Spain in 206 and then by defeating Hannibal in Africa at Zama in 202
Cato
Roman senator who vowed to destroy Carthage
Tiberias and Gaius Gracchus
two young plebeian brothers who were among the first to attempt reform
Augustus
he was formerly Octavian, but he was renamed "Augustus" (exalted one) by the senate. They also declared him princeps (first citizen)
Hadrian
he is considered a "good emperor". He codified Roman law and also had soldiers build a wall across Britain to hold back attackers from the non-Roman north
Marcus Aurelius
he read philosophy while leading wars, and was close to being Plato's ideal of a philosopher king. His book "Meditations" shows his commitment to duty: "Hour by hour resolve firmly...to do what comes to hand with correct and natural dignity"
Cincinnatus
an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, serving as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC. He was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity
Mark Antony
Roman general and triumvir. Following Julius Casesar's assassination in 44 BC, he took charge of the Eastern Empire, where he established his association with Cleopatra. Quarrels with Octavian led to his defeat at the battle of Actium
Octavian
the first Roman emperor; he gained supreme power by his defeat of Antony in 31 BC. In 27 BC he became emperor
Cleopatra
Queen of Egypt; After a brief liaison with Julius Caesar, she formed a political and romantic alliance with Mark Antony. Their ambitions ultimately brought them into conflict with Rome, and they were defeated at the battle of Actium in 31.
Julius Caesar
An ambitious military commander. Roman general and statesman. He established the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus in 60 and became consul in 59. Between 58 and 51 he fought the Gallic Wars, invaded Britain in 55-54, and acquired immense power. After civil war with Pompey, which ended in Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus in 48, he became dictator of the Roman Empire. He was murdered on the Ides of March in a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius.
Pompey
Roman general and statesman. He founded the First Triumvirate, but later quarreled with Julius Caesar, who defeated him at the battle of Pharsalus. He then fled to Egypt, where he was murdered.
Attila
Leader of the Huns from 434 - 453. He ravaged vast areas between the Rhine and the Caspian Sea before being defeated by the joint forces of the Roman army and the Visigoths at Chalons in 451. Called the "scourge of God" by the Christians
Odoacer
a Germanic leader who ousted the Roman emperor in 476
Alaric
the Visigoth general who overran Italy and plundered the city of Rome in 410 CE
Diocletian
Roman emperor. Faced with mounting military problems, he divided the empire into two pieces (286 CE). He controlled the eastern part and assigned Maximian to control the west
Maximian
he as appointed by Diocletian to control the western part of the Roman Empire
Constantine
A Roman emperor. He was the first Roman emperor to be converted to Christianity and in 324 he made Christianity the empire's state religion. In 330, he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium (which he renamed Constantinople)
Peter
The apostle that established Christianity in the city of Rome (according to tradition)
Paul
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spreading of Christianity. Wrote the First letter for the Corinthians
Jesus
The central figure of the Christian religion. Jesus conduced a mission of preaching and healing (with reported miracles) in Palestine which is described in the Gospels. His followers considered him to be the Christ or Messiah and the Son of God, and believe in his resurrection from the dead is the central tenet of Christianity.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor regained North Africa from the Vandals, Italy from the Ostrogoths, and Spain from the Visigoths. He codified Roman law
Theodora
Byzantine empress; wife of Justinian. As Justinian's closest adviser, she exercised considerable influence on political affairs and the theological questions of the time
Procopius
An advisor to the general Belisarius - He chronicled the Byzantine campaign against Persia. Wrote the book Secret History that savagely criticizes Justinian and Theodora.
Anna Comnena
Considered by many scholars to be the Western world's first important female historian. She analyzed the reign of her father, Emperor Alexius I, in the Alexiad
Cyril and Methodius
Two Greek brothers who adapted the Greek alphabet to allow the Bible to be translated into the Slavic language
Vladimir
Grandson of Princess Olga of Kiev; converted to Christianity after being married to the sister of a Byzantine emperor; aligned his kingdom politically and culturally with the Byzantine Empire
Yaroslav
united the two principalities between Novgorod and Kiev for a time under his rule' Rus reached the highest point of its cultural flowering and military power
Genghis Khan
"World Emperor"; Founder of the Mongol Empire; took the name Genghis Khan after uniting the nomadic Mongol tribes
Batu
Grandson of Genghis Khan; a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde
Muhammad
Arab prophet and founder of Islam
Abu Bakr
the first caliph after the death of Muhammad; Muhammad's father in-law and an early convert to Islam
Abu al-Abbas
sole survivor of the killing of the Umayyad family; escaped to Spain and founded the Abbasid dynasty, which lasted until 1258
Al-Mansur
the 2nd abbasid caliph
Hulagu
his army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire; burned and looted Baghdad; grandson of Genghis Khan
Tamerlane
Mongol leader; led his armies into the Middle East; his ambitions led him to conquer Muslim and non-Muslim lands; ancestor of the Mogul dynasty in India
Ibn Rushd
a philosopher who put all knowledge (excluding the Quran) to the test of reason; his writings influenced Christian scholastics in medieval Europe
Ibn Khaldun
an Arab thinker; set standards for the scientific study of history
Al-Khwarizmi
one of the greatest Muslim mathematicians; pioneered the study of algebra; wrote a book that became a standard mathematics textbook in Europe
Muhammad al-Razi
one of the most original medical thinkers; head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital; wrote many books on medicine; challenged accepted medical practices
Ibn Sina
Doctor to the Persian nobility by the time he was 16; wrote the medical encyclopedia Canon on Medicine
Nur Jahan
Wife of Jahangir (Akbar's son); left with most of the government details during her husband's reign; most powerful woman in Indian history until the 20th century
Shah Jahan
Emperor of the Mughal Empire from 1628-1658; grandson of Akbar; during his reign was the highest point of Mughal literature, art, and architecture
Mumtaz Mahal
Wife of Shah Jahan; Taj Mahal was built as her tomb
Akbar
The chief builder of the Mughal Empire; Babur's grandson; reigned from 1556-1605
Babur
Claimed he was a descendant of Genghis Khan; military genius, poet, and author of a detailed book of memoirs
Clovis
King of the Franks; converted to Christianity and gained the Pope as an ally
Charles Martel
Rallied Frankish warriors to fight the Muslims at the Battle of Tours
Charlemagne
Grandson of Charles Martel; became king of the Franks in 768; Briefly united Western Europe; Promoted the arts and education
Pope Leo III
Crowned Charlemagne as the successor to the Roman emperors, which further deepened the split between Eastern and Western Christianity
Prince Boleslaw of Cracow
Issued a charter protecting the liberties of Jews in 1264
Augustine
thought of as the greatest early church scholars. Bishop of Hippo in North Africa
Arthur
legendary heroic king of Sub-Roman Britain
Venerable Bede
scholar/monk who wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Vortigern
the king held responsible for inviting Saxon mercenaries to Britain
Columba
Irish missionary who founded a monastery at Iona
Queen Manduhai
Empress who put the Mongol nation back in order and created a new government
Akbar
Mughal emperor of India; expanded the Mughal empire to incorporate northern India
Aeneas
A Trojan leader, son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and legendary ancestor of the Romans, hero of the Aeneid. When Troy fell to the Greeks (Trojan War) he escaped and after wandering for many years eventually reached Italy. The story of his voyage is recounted in the Aeneid. Son of Aphrodite and Anchises
Dido
(In the Aeneid) the queen and founder of Carthage, who fell in love with the shipwrecked Aeneas and killed herself when he deserted her.
Juno
(Greek equivalent is Hera) Roman Mythology, the most important goddess of the roman state, wife of Jupiter. She was very hostile towards the Trojans and loved Carthage because she didn't get the golden apple from Paris
Latinus
Latinus - (aged king) He was King of the Latins, son of Faunus and Marica, and father of Lavinia with his wife, Amata.
Lavinia
Daughter of Latinus and Amata and wife of Aeneas. She was Latinus' only child and "ripe for marriage
Turnus
King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas
Rutulians
Members of a legendary Italic tribe. Located in territory whose capital was the ancient town of Ardea, located about 35 km southeast of Rome. In the Aeneis the Rutuli are lead by Turnus.
Vulcan
(Greek equivalent Hephaestus) Roman god of fire, husband of Venus (Greek Equivalent Aphrodite) (who was on the Trojan side because she is Aeneas' mother)