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20 terms

Exploration and Expansion

History Kamil EMW Final *=Mult Choice
STUDY
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*Which countries launched first voyages of exploration?
Portugal
*What technology was used that allowed Europeans to explore?
Compass and astrolabe from China and Muslims, shipbuilding advances
*What were explorers after?
• God, gold, glory.
• Desire for luxury items like spices, silk, perfume, jade from China and India.
• Curiosity (from writings)
*What led to the rapid decline of indigenous people?
Diseases like small-pox, measles, influenza, malaria
*Mercantilism
An economic system in the 1500-1700s, said a nation's power was directly related to its wealth and there was a fixed amount of wealth in the world and each nation had to take it away from others, resulted in balance of trade and self-sufficiency
*Zheng He
Admiral, diplomat and explorer during China's Ming dynasty (early 1400s), fleet visited more than 30 countries
*Why was the Great Wall built?
To improve defense against Mongol threat from North
Encomienda system
Spanish colonial system, colonist given certain amount of land and number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching them Christianity
European colonies in the Americas in 1700s
• Spain: Caribbean and Mexico, Aztecs and Incas, Viceroys chosen by king ruled large conquered areas, colonial economy based on mining of gold and silver and farming, Native Americans drafted for labor (population dropped more than 90%)
• Portuguese: Brazil, farming estates, used Native American labor and then African slaves
• French: Canada (later Louisiana too), area yielded fish and valuable furs, became allies with Native Americans
• Dutch: More focused on developing colonies in other parts of world
• English: First in Jamestown (Virginia) and then Plymouth (Massachusetts), distrusted Native Americans
Atahualpa
Last Inca king of Peru, taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and hand over his empire to Spanish (Spanish killed him and took over his empire)
Pizarro
Spanish conquistador 1530s, conquered the Inca Empire, founded Lima, Peru
Treaty of Todesillas
Agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in Americas (1494)
Colombian Exchange
transfer of plants, animals, and disease between the Americas and Europe, Asia and Africa in 1500s
Joint-stock companies
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
Capitalism
economic system in which most businesses are privately owned, emerged after Columbian exchange
Adam Smith
• Scottish economist
• Leading advocate of laissez faire economics
• Father of modern conomics
• Wrote first text on economics "Wealth of Nations in 1776
Atlantic Slave Trade
• Shortage of labor in plantations in Americas
• Originally used Native Americans, but millions killed
• Millions of Africans forcibly taken to the Americas in exchange for European goods
Who created a court for explorers in Portugal?
Prince Henry (the Navigator)
French settlers in Canada were mainly?
Traders
How did the Renaissance contribute to the Age of Exploration?
by awakening a spirit of discovery and innovation in Europe