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chapter 5 sociology test
Terms in this set (62)
__________ is the term for the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
Leaders using the __________ style of leadership may be praised for their expressive, supportive behavior toward group members, but they may also be blamed for being indecisive in times of crisis.
Members of a country club, sorority or fraternity, or even a group of friends share values and beliefs and are aware of those whom they believe are like them. Sociologists term this awareness __________.
consciousness of kind
A(n) __________ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
__________ is the term for compliance in which people follow direct orders from someone in a position of authority.
A(n) __________ is a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
The sociologist who first defined the differences between primary and secondary groups is __________.
Charles H. Cooley
A(n) __________ is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
Which of these sociologists applied ideal type analysis and borrowed from the field of economics to study bureaucracies?
In Stanley Milgram's experiments, none of the "teachers" challenged the process before they had applied __________ volts.
The text uses the expression "bureaucracy's other face" to refer to __________.
the informal activities within a bureaucracy
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic toward the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.
Most government, business, education, and religious organizations are __________ in form.
Social psychologist __________ examined group decision making among political experts and found that major blunders in U.S. history may be attributed to pressure toward group conformity.
A school district is run by a board of elected officials, which hires a superintendent, who in turn selects principals for its schools and other administrative staff. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of __________.
hierarchy of authority
Sociologists refer to the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group as __________.
Which of these is an example of a coalition?
teachers in a school district who work together to demand better wages
A group composed of three members is termed a(n) __________.
A(n) __________ is an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy).
The ideal-type characteristics of bureaucratic organizations, as specified by Max Weber, include an emphasis on____________________________.
a division of labor
A(n) __________ is an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personal matters.
__________ needs are met by opportunities of self-expression and support from family, friends, and peers.
A(n) __________ is a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic (such as education level, age, race, or gender).
After conducting his research, Solomon Asch concluded that __________.
the degree of social cohesion felt by participants is very important regarding how individuals respond to group pressure
In times of crisis, such as a war or natural disaster, __________ leaders may be commended for their decisive actions. In other situations, however, they may be criticized for being dictatorial and for fostering intergroup hostility.
Weber's term __________ refers to the process by which traditional informal and spontaneous methods of social organization are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
In 2010, concern about cost overruns and staying on schedule kept executives of BP, Halliburton, and Transocean from sharing information and concerns with each other. The result was a shared assumption of safety that ultimately resulted in the explosion of a BP oil rig and an unprecedented environmental disaster. The failure to express concerns and confront potential risk is an example of __________.
In discussing primary and secondary groups, the text points out that__________________.
people in a secondary group may eventually form a primary group
A dozen inexperienced backpackers are preparing to settle in for the night when they realize that someone in the group is missing. The __________ style of leadership would be most effective in this situation.
The term for people with whom we have primary relationships and those in our primary groups is __________.
Latisha is a member of a group working on a research project for a class assignment. Whenever the group meets, other members are easily sidetracked and Latisha is always trying to keep the group focused on the assignment. Latisha would be considered the __________ leader of the group.
We voluntarily join __________ organizations when they can provide us with a material reward we seek.
In which of these types of groups is the participation of all members crucial to the survival of the group?
A homeless man appears at the door of a shelter 10 minutes after the deadline for intake. He is refused shelter for the night because he arrived late. Applying the terms for problems that are frequent within bureaucracy, this is an example of __________.
A(n) __________ organization is a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner.
From a __________ perspective, if groups exist to meet the instrumental and expressive needs of their members, then leaders are responsible for helping the group meet those needs.
Almost __________ of Stanley Milgram's research subjects went all the way to what could have been a deadly jolt of electricity if the shock generator had been real.
Women with blue eyes, people who wear contact lenses, people over 7 feet tall, and college men who belong to a fraternity are each an example of a(n) __________.
People do not voluntarily become members of __________ organizations.
To many __________, groups and organizations are generally characterized by superficiality and depthlessness in social relationships.
Which type of theorist is most concerned with the influence of group size on the interaction among members?
Students walking to class, shoppers in a department store, and people lined up to buy tickets are examples of __________.
Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term __________ to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
__________ leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and when harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.
Several employees at a fast-food restaurant call in sick at the last minute. The manager tries to fill in but doesn't know how to run the drive-through intercom or broiler. Applying the terms for problems that are frequent within bureaucracy, this is an example of __________.
Which type of theorist is most likely to note the scripted nature of interaction in contemporary society (for example between employees and customers in a fast-food restaurant)?
Total institutions, such as boot camps, prisons, and some mental hospitals, are examples of __________ organizations.
__________ needs cannot always be met by one person, so being in a group enables one to complete tasks or fulfill a specific goal.
In regard to Stanley Milgram's study, the text points out that __________.
this research raises some questions concerning research ethics
A teacher gives students ideas for an assignment, but encourages them to be creative and pick their own subject and format. The teacher is using a(n) _________ leadership style.
Jocelyn is a senior at the local university and plans to attend graduate school to study sociology. During her last semester, she has been using graduate sociology student papers as standards in evaluating her own writing skills. For Jocelyn, the graduate sociology students have become her __________.
A(n) __________ is an alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal.
__________ suggest that groups involve unequal power relationships so that not all members of a group are not equally likely to have their needs met.
Which of these is an example of a utilitarian organization?
The supervisor of the office has been informed that Sarah consistently extends her lunch hour by 30 minutes. He chooses to take a passive approach to this problem, hoping that it will fix itself. This particular supervisor is exhibiting which style of leadership?
A(n) __________ is a group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
Two best friends, married couples, and domestic partnerships are each an example of a(n) __________.
Which of these sociologists first suggested that small groups have interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups?
Joaquin is a member of a group working on a project for his biology class. Whenever the group meets, there is conflict among several group members, and this is upsetting to the others. Joaquin is continuously trying to improve group harmony and reduce the conflict in the group. Joe would be considered the __________ leader of the group.
Annette, Joshua, Sandra, and Luis are college students who met for the first time in a sociology class. They study together and pool their notes. Otherwise, they see each other only occasionally when their paths cross between classes. Sociologists would term them a(n) __________.
The "grapevine" spreads information (with varying degrees of accuracy) much faster than do official channels of communication, which tend to be slow and unresponsive. Within a bureaucracy, the "grapevine" is an example of __________.
In his study of conformity, Solomon Asch found that __________.
subjects chose to conform to the incorrect responses of Asch's assistants about one‑third (33 percent) of the time
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