environmental health exam 2

infectious disease
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indirect (environmental) mode of transmissionwhat type of infectious diseases does environmental health focus onwater borne, foodborne, zoonotic, vector bornewhat are some examples of the environmental mode of transmissionwormsmulticellular, parasiticprotozoaunicellular; parasiticbacteriaunicellular; most not parasiticvirusesstrand of DNA or RNA; parasiticprionsabnormally shaped proteins found on nerve cells; cause degenerative brain diseasesdroplet transmission, direct oral contactwhat are the 2 types of transmission through closeness or contactdroplet transmissiontransmission via airborne droplets less than 1 meter coughing or sneezing diphtheria, TB, pertussis, influenza, measles, mumps, rubelladirect oral contact_______ coming in contact with a disease directly through your mouth, strep, herpes simplex-1, infectious mononucleosisvectorliving transmitter of diseasemechanical vectoritems such as syringes or a houseflyfomitean inanimate object that transmits diseaseairborne transmissionThe spread of an organism in aerosol form.fecal oral pathwayone person's infectious diarrheal disease becomes next person's disease of fecal origin; If sewage not well controlled, waterborne transmission dominates also via soil and hand to mouthcholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, giardiasis, cryptosporidium, hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, poliowhat are some examples of fecal oral diseasescomposting toiletsas innovative approach to sanitation in less developed countriesguinea worm disease, tetanusnon-fecal organisms also transmitted in water or soilfecal oral pathwaywhat way are most foodborne illnesses transmitted without sanitation○Animal fecal pathogens, from slaughter ○Pathogens in soil on food ○Human skin ○Mechanical vectors (flies, cockroaches)what are most infectious diseases transmitted byinfectionContamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organismsintoxicationbacterial toxinsnon-typhoid salmonellaCommon in poultry feces; contaminate flesh Typical scenario #1: poultry not cooked to high enough temperature Typical scenario #2: cross-contamination after cooking Common illness; gastrointestinal; rarely fatalcampylobacterAlso common in feces of poultry Common illness; gastrointestinal; rarely fatallisteria monocytogenesWidespread in environment; hardy Septicemia, meningitis, reproductive effects1 Higher fatality rate○Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H72May be in cattle intestines; contaminates meat during processing Inadequate cooking, especially hamburgers; as few as 10 organisms can cause illness Intoxication; bloody diarrhea; sometimes hemolytic uremic syndrome, deathzoonosisRefers to "an infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to humans." Sometimes animals get the diseases, but more often serve as non-affected reservoirContact with the skin A bite or scratch from an animal Direct inhalation or ingestion The bite of a vectormethods for transmission of zoonosesvectoran insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual or its wastes to a susceptible individual or its food or immediate surroundingsvectorborne transmissionan animal contains and transmits an infectious organism to humanshuman vector relationshipsExample with schistosomiasis Freshwater becomes contaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected people urinate or defecate in the water. The eggs hatch, and if certain types of snails are present in the water, the parasites grow and develop inside the snails. The parasite leaves the snail and enters the water where it can survive for about 48 hours Schistosoma parasites can penetrate the skin of persons who are wading, swimming, bathing, or washing in contaminated water. Within several weeks, worms grow inside the blood vessels of the body and produce eggs. Some of these eggs travel to the bladder or intestines and are passed into the urine or stool.schistosomiasisWhile these eggs travel to the liver or pass into the intestine or bladder, they cause inflammation or scarring. Children who are repeatedly infected can develop anemia, malnutrition, and learning difficulties. can also damage the liver, intestines, lungs, and bladder. Rarely, eggs are found in the brain or spinal cord and can cause seizures, paralysis, or spinal cord inflammation. Symptoms are caused by the body's reaction to the eggs produced by worms, not by the worms themselvesmalaria transmissionTransmission involves the complex life cycle of mosquitoes (the vector) and human hosts (with human liver and human blood stages). Transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito of the anopheles type.Plasmodium falciparum (Most deadly) Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium malariaewhat are the infectious agents of malariamalariaA disease found in more than 100 countries, with more than 40% of the world's population at risk Endemic regions include Central and South America, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Oceania. Global direct economic costs incurred by malaria are estimated to be in the billion of U.S. dollars The direct costs include those for treatment and prevention of the disease (e.g., medicine, hospitalization, and pesticide use). Lost productivity, lost earnings, and negative impacts upon travel and tourism Annual death toll was more than 1 million persons, and in 2017 there were half a million deaths globally from malariaDDThow was malaria controlled in the mid-20th century219 million, 435,00 deathshow many malaria cases were in 2017gates foundationlevel efforts to eradicate malaria Vaccine development efforts International efforts to decrease mosquito population, targeted DDT sprayings, etc.sentinel chickens drain standing water introduced mosquito eating fish into ponds repair window screens wear repellents and protective clothingwhat are some other controls of mosquito-borne diseasearboviral diseasesA group of viral diseases that are most frequently acquired when blood-feeding arthropod vectors infect a human host. Vectors that transmit these include ticks, sand flies, biting midges, and mosquitoes. disease symptoms may include acute Central Nervous System illness with fever or rash, and may progress to hemorrhagic fevers or polyarthritis Recent diseases include Dengue fever, West Nile Virus, (re-emerging) Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zikaarboviral encephalitisCaused by a virus that produces an acute inflammation of: Sections of the brain Spinal cord Meninges Among the etiologic agents are viruses associated with many forms of encephalitis, including: St. Louis encephalitis Western equine encephalitis Transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes from the reservoir to a human host. The reservoir for some forms of encephalitis consists of wild birds and small animals. Cost of is approximately $150 million per year, including vector control and surveillance activities.dengeu feverCaused by flaviviruses The proportion of deaths can be as high as 40% to 50% when the disease is untreated. 2nd infection more severe than 1st Occurs primarily in tropical subtropical areas of the world, for example, Southeast Asia, tropical Africa, and South America. The vector for transmission of the disease is the Aedes aegypti mosquito (not the same one associated with malaria) In the U.S., most cases of are imported by travelers who are returning from endemic areas or by immigrants. Occurrence of that originated in the continental U.S. has been documented. Southern Texas and the southeastern states are at theoretical risk for transmission of and for sporadic outbreaks.epidemic arboviral diseaseUnprecedented emergence of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever & Zika Focus on controlling Malaria (i.e. anopheles mosquitos) caused neglect of research into control of aedes mosquitoeswest nile virusClassified as a mosquito-borne arboviral fever, the etiologic agent is a Flavivirus. Mosquitoes are the carriers that become infected when they feed on infected birds. Health effects vary from no symptoms to very severe symptomatology.ebola virus and Hanta virushemorrahagic virusesHantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)The causative agent is the hantavirus, part of the viral family known as Bunyaviridae. May be transmitted when aerosolized (airborne) urine and droppings from infected rodents are inhaled. Primary vectors are four species of rodents: cotton rat, rice rat, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse.prevent human contact with vectors, reduce vector populationhow do you prevent vectorborne diseases○Clothing, screens and nets ○Insect repellentshow to prevent human contact with vectors○Modifications to the environment ○Release of (genetically modified) sterile male insects to reduce reproduction ○Pesticides (to be discussed in Chapter 5)how to reduce vector populationactive immunityA form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens. on first exposure to antigen, body produces antibodiesvaccinationinjection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunityactive immunityantigen preparationpassive immunityantibody preparationherd immunityimmunity in most of a populationisolationthe separation of persons who have an infectious illness5quarantinethe separation of persons who have been exposed to an infectious agent5sanitationDisposal of waste products, misguiding but beneficialMRSAmethicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureusantibioticsDrugs that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria7 millionTotal deaths globally from infectious diseases in 2016Burden of death from respiratory infections (40% of infectious disease deaths), diarrheal disease (20%), HIV/AIDS (14%), tuberculosis (18%), and malaria (7%)burden of deathyes (chronic irritation = cell proliferation)can infectious disease increase cancer risk15% worldwide (higher in lower income countries)known infectious disease causes what percent of cancerCDCvaccination: develops guidelines; states implement isolation and quarantine: Nationally, CDC; states within their borders surveillance of listed infectious diseases Regulation of food supply, and treatment of sewage and drinking water, are also importantVenomous snakes, scorpions, spiders Stingrays, scorpionfishesexamples of poisonous animals in naturericintoxin in castor beansneurotoxinstoxin in pufferfishParalytic shellfish poisoning Ciguatera poisoningConsumption of plant or animal tissue containing accumulated natural toxinsergotConsumption of fungal toxins found on food plants in the fieldPotent carcinogenhepatocellular carcinoma, most common primary liver cancer worldwide causes by aflatoxin in moldaflatoxin in moldPotent carcinogen—hepatocellular carcinoma, most common primary liver cancer worldwide Synergistic effect with hepatitis B exposure Together account for most hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk regionsplasmodiumis a parasitic protozoadrought, earthquake, tsunamis, storms, floodswhat are the biggest natural disasters killersyescan natural disasters create an industrial hazardsTsunami - Indian Ocean2004, less developed country and killed 226,096Hurricane Katrina2005, more developed country, killed 1833Haitian earthquake2010, less developed, killed 222,570earthquake and tsunami in Japan2011, more developed country, killed 20,319radiationGenerally, (wave packets of) energy traveling at the speed of light (thru space) Different types of radiation vary by their frequency & wavelength, resulting in varying amounts of energy , measured in electron volts (eV)electromagnetic spectrumAll of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiationnon-ionizingradiation with enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to remove electronsionizingradiation that is enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, thus creating ionsnon-ionizing radiationTo disturb or upset, non-ionizing radiation Examples of this kind of radiation are sound waves, visible light, and microwaves.Cancers from power lines, radar, cell phones*, electric blankets (inconclusive) damage to eye sun damage heat burnwhat are the worries about non-ionizing radiationUVRcoming from the sun is subdivided into UVA, UVB, and UVC, depending upon the wave length of the light.UVBone of the forms of UVR considered to be the form that is most harmful to health-Welders' arcs -Tanning beds -Some flood lamps used in photography -Halogen desk lamps -Lightning -Electrical sparks -Sunbathingwhat are some sources of UVR radiationburns and temporary blindingtemporary effects of UV radiation-Photoaging of the skin -Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) -Malignant melanoma (MM) -Retinal damage -Lens opacitieslong term effects of UV radiationalpha particles2 protons and 2 neutrons, basically a helium nucleusbeta particlesa negatively charged particle (an electron) emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay.gamma raysPHOTON Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequenciesThe total amount of time exposed to the radioactive source Distance from the radioactive source Degree of radioactivity (rate of energy emission) of a radioactive material Example with uranium-238 vs radon-222factors that affect the amount of radiation exposureabsorbed doseThe radiation energy absorbed per unit mass of an organ or tissue and is used in studies of the damage to a particular organ or tissue.effective dosethe dose at which a given percentage of individuals show a particular effect of a drugtissue burns and radiation sickness (e.g., nausea, weakness, and loss of hair)affect of low level ionizing radiationcapable of producing fatal injuriesaffect of high level ionizing radiationStochastic effectsmeans that there is an increased probability of the occurrence of an adverse health event. Carcinogenesis and genetic damage such as changes in DNA are possible effects of radiation exposure.cosmic rays, potassium, uranium and thoriumwhat are natural sources of exposure to ionizing radiationExposure of the population to ionizing radiation from medical procedures is the second largest source of exposure, about 40% Medical X-rays and radiation diagnostic and therapy procedures produce exposures to ionizing radiation Watch out for those CT scans!medical uses of ionizing radiationNuclear power plants have been known to leak ionizing radiation into the environment under unusual conditions. Radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear testing has exposed large populations to radiation. Decommissioned and abandoned nuclear weapons facilities and storage of nuclear wastes.anthropogenic sources of exposure to ionizing radiationradon (second is medical procedures)largest source of radiation exposurevectors of disease sources of discomfort resources competitionwhat are the 3 main problems humans have with pesticidesfliesDiarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, infestations, annoyancemosquitoMany diseases, bites, annoyanceliceTyphus, trench fever, bites, annoyancemitesScabies, bites, allergic reactionsticksDiseases, annoyance, bitesantsBites, annoyance, allergic reactionspesticide¢". . . any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, weeds, and a host of other unwanted organisms."insecticides¢A pesticide compound specifically used to kill or prevent the growth of insectsherbicides¢A chemical pesticide designed to control or destroy plants, weeds, or grassesfungicideA pesticide that is used to control, deter, or destroy funginematocide¢A chemical agent that is destructive to nematodes (definition of nematode: worm)rodenticide¢A chemical or agent used to destroy rats or other rodent pests, or to prevent them from damaging food, crops, etc.¢Initially, physical efforts employed ¢During Middle Ages, the Chinese & Middle Eastern countries employed knowledge of plant poisons ¢The horrible blights in the 1800's (Irish Potato famine - 1848) prompted research into chemical controlswhat are the early pest controls¢Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate & lime) ¢Paris Green (copper with arsenic) ¢Lead with arsenic ¢All of these inorganic metals are highly toxic!early chemical agents in early pest controlDDTcreated in 1940 ¢Very toxic to pests, but seemingly harmless to humans ¢Dr. Paul Mueller awarded 1948 Nobel Prize ¢This organochlorine ushers in the Era of Chemical Pesticides! ¢Primarily used as an insecticide ¢Credited with savings millions from death due to malaria ¢Focus on Rachel Carson's Silent Spring Concerns about possible reproductive adverse effects in wildlife and humans led to banorganochlorideswork as nerve toxins ¢Persistent in the environment lInitially thought to be a good feature ¢Lipophilic ¢Bioaccumulated in fatty tissue ¢Biomagnified up the food chain¢DDT ¢Lindane ¢Chlordane ¢Mirex ¢Hexachlorobenzene ¢Methoxychlorexamples of organochloridesanticholinesterasesinhibits activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme that degrades acetylcholine in synapse, so acetylcholine keeps affecting postsynaptic cell and no coordinated muscle contractions can take place ¢While low to moderate activation of these receptors causes nervous stimulation, high levels overstimulate and block the receptors, causing paralysis & death¢Organophosphates, Carbamates & NeonicotinoidsOther Pesticides that "Poison" the Central Nervous System (CNS)Organophosphates¢"related to "Nerve Gases" ¢Frequently the cause of fatal poisonings, especially among ag. workers¢Can be used to control a wide range of insects, eliminating need for multiple applications of different pesticides ¢Tend not to persist in the environment ¢Have not been affected by insect resistance as muchwhat are some benefits of organophosphatesinsect resistancewhat are the concerns of organophosphatespesticide resistancea trait possessed by certain individuals that are exposed to a pesticide and survive¢Malathion (mosquito) and methyl parathion ¢Diazinon (band) ¢Dursban (band) ¢Imidan ¢Appear in a wide variety of products: baits, sprays, foggers, flea collars, granules, ...common OPscarbamates¢Closely related to OPs ¢Approved for controlling garden pests and an ingredient in tick and flea products for furry pets ¢Dissipate quickly as a result of rapid breakdown into other substances ¢Carbyl (Sevin) ¢Aldicarb ¢Fenoxycarb ¢Propoxur ¢Metam sodiumMethyl Isocyanate (MIC)¢is an intermediate chemical used for the manufacture of carbamate pesticides. ¢When acute exposure occurs, MIC is extremely toxic to life forms (e.g., human beings, aquatic organisms, and plants).MIC Release in Bhopal, IndiaA notorious incident was the accidental release of MIC during a 1984 industrial accident in Bhopal, India, that killed more than 3,800 people.Union Carbide's defense¢Now owned by Dow Chemical Company, Union Carbide denies allegations against it on its website dedicated to the tragedy. ¢The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage - a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.neonicotinoids¢class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine first introduced in the 1980s by Shell and in the 1990s by Bayer ¢The name literally means "new nicotine-like insecticides" ¢acetylcholinesterase cannot break down neonicotinoids and their binding is irreversible Under scrutiny for its connection to killing beespyrethrins¢Derived from natural sources--certain varieties of chrysanthemum flowers ¢also impair the nervous system ¢Have great ability to paralyze and kill flying insects ¢Interfere with transmission of neural impulses via action on sodium channels¢Generally have low concentrations of the active ingredient ¢Used inside the home in aerosol cans, insecticide bombs, insecticidal pet shampoos, treatments for lice applied directly to humans, and mosquito repellents ¢May be inhaled as a result of spraying and may be ingested in foodsuses of pyrethrin insecticides¢Poison the system ¢Defoliate habitat (i.e. remove food & shelter for the pests) ¢Disrupt the circulatory system Disrupt the reproductive cyclewhat are chemical actions of pesticidespoisoning the entire system¢example with inorganic metals that overwhelm the GI tract ¢Rat poisons: red squill causes heart paralysis & norbormide causes shock impairment of blood circulationdefoliate habitat¢Herbicides/Defoliants ¢Examples of chemicals in the category of herbicides and defoliants are: Atrazine Paraquat Agent Orangeagent orange¢Used during the Vietnam War, during Operation Ranch Hand (1962 to 1971) ¢Approximately 19 million gallons of defoliants sprayed on 3.6 million acres in Vietnam and Laos ¢Contained small amount of dioxinsdioxins". . . refers to a family of chemical compounds that are unintentional byproducts of certain industrial, non-industrial and natural processes, usually involving combustion."anti-coagulants¢disrupt circulatory system - example: Warfarin rat poisondisrupt reproductive cycleTarget vulnerable stage, such as larva phase or during "molting"¢Increase crop yields ¢Fewer rodent problems ¢Decrease major diseaseswhat are the benefits of modern chemical pesticides¢Development of resistance ¢Killing of beneficial species ¢Persistent environmental contamination Concerns with residual contamination in foodwhat are some significant drawbacks to chemicalsIntegrated Pest Management (IPM)An agricultural practice that uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs ØLearn all you can about the given pest ØUse technical measures ØCombine strategies with emphasis upon use of natural controls-Use of natural enemies -Pathogens, such as BTI bacteria -Use pheromones -Sterilize with irradiation -Develop resistant plants (GM crops) -Rotate crops -Clean-up refuse fasterwhat are some alternatives to chemical pesticidesDifficult to study ´Changing mix of chemicals ´Workers lack information ´Variation in practices, protective gear ´Hard to disentangle acute & chronic effects Neurologic & reproductive effects Cancershuman health effects of pesticidesPesticide production workers Farmers and their families Hired farmworkers ´In U.S., mostly men, about half Hispanic, half foreign-born ´Often inadequate protections, facilities, warnings In lower-income countries; more hazardous pesticides may still be in usedisparities in exposures and impacts´Few varieties of crops; grown in monoculture ´Heavy reliance on chemicals and machinery Subsidized by fossil fuelswhat are the key features of US agriculture todaynitrogen contamination´Extensive use of nitrate fertilizers à Nitrites in groundwater´Nitrites in water change hemoglobin to form that cannot carry oxygen ´Causes methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) in young infantsdirect human health effects of nitrogen contaminationgenetically modified crop plantsincrease global food supply Crops that resist disease, repel pests, ripen faster . . . ´Isolate gene for desired characteristic ´Using a loop of bacterial DNA, transfer this gene (transgene or biotech gene) into DNA of another speciesallergic reactions, the spread of antibiotic resistancewhat are the concerns associated with GM´42% of US water consumption in 201544 ´Substantial losses to evaporation ´Areas of concern: ´Lower Colorado River, Rio Grande region ´Central Plains and Southwestuses of water irrigationfatal and non fatal injuriesmechanical hazards to workersa luxurywhat is eating meatmodern livestock production´Subsidizes feed crops with oil and chemicals ´Emphasizes mechanization, large scale ´Uses new feeding & veterinary practicesconcentrated animal feeding operationsA large indoor or outdoor structure used to raise animals at very high densities´Feedlots, paved or unpaved (cattle) à ´Enclosed houses, slotted floors (swine) or bedding (broilers), mechanical ventilation ´Ground & pelletized feed ´Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, dusts ´Respiratory problems largest single cause of death in cattle and swine before slaughterwhat are some conditions involved in animal confinement´Methane (belching cattle) contributes to global climate change ´Cattle & swine wastes stored in lagoons, sprayed on fields, released to water ´Nitrogen loading à nitrates in groundwater ´Manure in surface water drop in dissolved oxygen, with fish killswhat are some environmental impacts of CAFOSfoodborne illnessslaughter and meat processing is a source of what because of fecal matterrenderingwhat was the source of prion disease transmitted in foodBovine Spongiform Encephalopathydisease of cattle ("mad cow disease") that can be transmitted to humans, causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease´Ban on importing animals / animal products from countries affected by BSE ´Feed bans: ´First, ruminant feed ban = ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants ´Then, mammalian feed ban = ban on feeding mammalian protein to ruminants ´Practical challenges of segregated renderingwhat are some US safeguards against BSEmodern fishingmore dangerous than coal mining´Agriculture is the planet's dominant environmental threat ´Consumes a large portion of the earth's land surface, destroying habitats ´Uses up freshwater and pollutes oceans Emits greenhouse gaseswhat are the impacts of modern agriculture40what percentage of useable land is agriculture70irrigation uses what percentage of freshwaternitrous oxide and methanewhat greenhouse gases are released by agriculturecarrying capacity´The population that an area will support without undergoing environmental deterioration ´The cc of an env tends to limit population size ´Food avail, repro behavior, and infections diseases tend to keep animal populations in checks curve´population increase quickly and will eventually level off once it reaches carrying capacityj curvea growth curve that depicts exponential growthboom and bust cyclea pattern of population growth in which exponential growth leads to a period when the population exceeds its carrying capacity, causing the population to decrease rapidly or crash´Fertilizers/pesticides ´Farm machinery ´Irrigation methods ´Hybrid cropswhat are some of ways that food production has increased from end of WWII´More interest in meat ´Diversion of grain into other products ´Wealth required to gain foodwhy did food demand overtook food productionretrogressionact of going from a better to a worse state; deterioration ´Overgrazing and soil erosion ´Deforestation ´Desertification ´Wetland destruction ´Species extinctionfarm, harvest, transport, processing, storage, preparation and consumptiondescribe the process of food from source to tableirradiation of fooddone with ionizing radiation; reduces contamination by bacteria, fungi, and insects•Substitutes late-stage process for upstream prevention •May destroy nutrients •Creates new (radiolytic) chemicalswhat are the negatives of irradiation of foodtraceabilitythe degree to which we can directly relate a cost or revenue to a decision optionincididental additives•may be present in foods as a result of unintentional contamination during packaging, storage, and handling.malicious additives•include substances such as poisons that saboteurs introduce into foods for various reasons.WHOinternational food safety regulatorUSDAthe food safety and inspection serviceFDAFood and Drug Administration. The agency that is responsible for determining if a food or drug is safe and effective enough to be sold to the public.EPAresponsible for managing effects of pesticides on human healthFood and Drug Administration FDA•responsible for safety, nutritional value, and labeling of •Most foods other than meat and poultry •Related to concerns other than pesticidesU.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)regulates the safety of meat and poultry products.center for disease controltrack of foodborne illnesses and disease trendspure food and drug actmade adulteration and mislabeling illegalDelaney Clauseprohibited the use of additives that had been determined to cause cancer in human beings or animalsgenerally recognized as safeprohibited the use of additives that had been determined to cause cancer in human beings or animalsImproper temp for keeping foods & poor personal hygiene of food handlersName the 2 biggest causes of foodborne disease outbreaks?food safety•Regulatory focus on controls upstream in food supply (vs food safety in home or restaurant) •Traditional approach: hands-on inspection ("poke and sniff")Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)•Modern System for reducing the risk of foodborne illness •Using HACCP, foods are monitored from the time of harvest to the time of consumption. Began in the 1950sCurrent emphasis on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HAACP) approach•Identify potential hazards •Identify critical control points in production •For each critical control point, establish: -Measures to prevent hazard -Procedures to monitor these measures -Corrective actions in event of failure •Establish procedures to ensure system is working •Establish recordkeeping systems-Pro: Science-based HACCP approach can be much more effective than "poke and sniff" -Con: Inspectors evaluate industry's HAACP systems rather than inspecting food itself•HAACP pro and con:pesticide tolerancemaximum residue allowed in human food•Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (1978)-USDA has veterinarian and slaughter line inspector at each federally inspected slaughterhouse -Mandated methods for slaughter are incorporated in HAACP systemInspection and grading of meat•Carcasses are inspected for wholesomeness, w/stamped approval •Individual cuts of meet are graded based on marbling •New voluntary certification process for labeling beef as grass-fedMagnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act-Addresses: •Overfishing of regional ocean fisheries •Environmental degradation of fisheries •Accidental catching of other species