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IB Biology 6.1 and 6.2 Review Questions
Only question not on here is number 4, 7, 10, 12b and please refer to the diagrams for the answer and question on that one
Terms in this set (17)
What substance is released into the blood by the pancreas when blood glucose levels are low?
Which of the following structures increase the surface area for absorption of digested food in the small intestine?
II. Protein pumps
Microvilli and Villi
Where is the gallbladder located?
surrounded by the liver
Why is most food digested?
Most ingested food molecules are large.
What sequence of organs do substances pass through, as they move through the human digestive system?
Mouth → esophagus → stomach → small intestine → large intestine → anus
William Harvey discovered that blood flows away from the heart in arteries and back to the heart in veins. What hypothesis could be developed from this discovery?
Blood vessels link up arteries to veins
Which vessel carries deoxygenated blood?
The pulmonary artery
What is transported by the blood?
I. Carbon dioxide
State the name used by biochemists for the chains and cycles of reactions that occur inside cells.
Outline the effect of pH values above and below the optimum on enzyme structure.
ionic bonds / polar bonds broken / disrupted /
charge distribution altered;
ionization of amino / carboxyl groups altered;
conformation / shape of enzyme / active site altered /
tertiary structure altered;
Enzymes that work inside cells are sometimes affected by non-competitive inhibitors. Explain how a non-competitive inhibitor affects the activity of an enzyme.
inhibitor binds (to the enzyme) away from the active site/
at allosteric site;
shape / (intramolecular) bonding / conformation of the protein /
enzyme is altered;
shape / properties of active site altered;
substrate no longer fits the active site /
no enzyme-substrate / ES complex formed;
no enzyme activity /
works more slowly (until the inhibitor dissociates);
Describe the mechanisms that control the heartbeat.
myogenic / initiated in heart muscle itself;
SA node / pacemaker sends waves of excitation / impulse to atria;
stimulus to the AV node;
conducting fibres / bundle of His / Purkinje fibres conduct impulses
to lower ventricles;
moderated by ANS / vagus nerve / parasympathetic;
Discuss the factors, which affect the occurrence of coronary heart disease.
genetic - some people predisposed for high cholesterol levels / high blood pressure;
age - older people greater risk / less elasticity in arteries;
sex - males at great risk than females;
smoking - constricts blood vessels / increases blood pressure / heart-rate /
decreases oxygenation of heart muscle;
diet - increases fat / cholesterol / LDL in blood / leads to plaque formation in arteries;
exercise - lack of exercise increases risk;
obesity - increase in blood pressure / leads to plaque formation in arteries;
Draw a labeled diagram to show the internal structure of the heart.
Explain the relationship between the structure and functions of arteries, capillaries and veins.
left and right ventricle;
left and right atria;
atrioventricular valves / bicuspid / mitral and tricuspid valves;
aorta and vena cava;
pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein;
ventricle wall thicker than atria;
left ventricle wall thicker than right ventricle wall;
Draw a diagram of a villus in vertical section.
Draw a diagram of the human digestive system.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
IB Biology HL: 1.1 Introduction to Cells
IB Biology HL: 1.2 Ultra-structure of Cells
IB Biology: 1.3 Membrane Structure
IB Biology review (1.1-1.6)
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