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Act of Supremacy

act passed by Parliament during King Henry VIII's reign in 1534 that declared Henry the head of church and state

Constitutional Monarchy

a monarchy limited by certain laws

Divine Right

belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God

Edict of Nantes

1598, declaration of French King Henry IV promising that Protestants could live peacefully in France and were free to establish houses of worship in select French cities

Glorious Revolution

1688, a nonviolent revolution in which leaders of Parliament invited Mary and William to replace King James II

Magna Carta (1215)

a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles rights and restricted king's powers

Oliver Cromwell

• Puritan member of Parliament who rose to power and defeated Charles I in English Civil War
• Made Rump parliament and dismissed all who opposed him
• England became commonwealth (republican gov. based on common good of all)
• He clamped down on social life and brought warfare


a group of strict Calvinists in England that demanded the Church of England be further reformed, which led to English Civil War

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572, massacre of 6-8,000 Huguenots in Paris authorized by King Charles IX and Catherine de Medici

Spanish Armada

a great fleet assembled by Spain in 1588 to invade England to stop them from raiding Spanish ships and return England to Catholicism. Defeated by British navy, marked decline of Spain as major power

English Bill of Rights

document drafted by Parliament that set limits on the monarch's power, prevented monarch from raising taxes without consent of Parliament, central to England's growth as a constitutional monarchy

*Absolute Monarch

ruler whose power was not limited by having to consult with public

Charles V

mid 1500s King of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, opposition to Protestant Reformation brought Spain into a series of wars

Phillip II

mid 1500s, King of Spain, Naples, and Portugal, led Catholic efforts to recover Europe from Protestantism, defeated by England and Netherlands

Henry IV

King of France in late 1500s, issued Edict of Nantes, formed Huguenot, converted to Catholicism when took throne

Louis XIII & Richelieu

King of France in early 1600s, weak ruler who let Cardinal Richelieu his chief minister take charge

Louis XIV

King of France from mid 1600s to early 1700s, known as Sun King, build palace at Versailles, drained France's wealth and series of war at end of his reign

Charles I

King of England, Scotland and Ireland in early 1600s, conflict with Parliament started English Civil War

Charles II

Mid 1600s, King of England Scotland and Ireland, asked by Parliament to rule England after death of Oliver Cromwell

Ivan the Terrible

• Mid 1500s, First Russian ruler to assume title of czar
• Instituted campaign of terror
• Sent away/killed all advisors, when wife died, became paranoid/crazy
• Killed thousands out of paranoia

Peter the Great

• Became Czar in 1682 when he was a child, so sister ruled until he could
• Wanted to modernize Russia
• Journeyed to Europe to see what Russia lacked
• Made reforms, adopted European lifestyles

Catherine the Great

Czarina of Russia late 1700s, introduced reforms to extend westernization of Peter the Great

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