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Act of Supremacy
act passed by Parliament during King Henry VIII's reign in 1534 that declared Henry the head of church and state
Edict of Nantes
1598, declaration of French King Henry IV promising that Protestants could live peacefully in France and were free to establish houses of worship in select French cities
1688, a nonviolent revolution in which leaders of Parliament invited Mary and William to replace King James II
Magna Carta (1215)
a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles rights and restricted king's powers
• Puritan member of Parliament who rose to power and defeated Charles I in English Civil War
• Made Rump parliament and dismissed all who opposed him
• England became commonwealth (republican gov. based on common good of all)
• He clamped down on social life and brought warfare
a group of strict Calvinists in England that demanded the Church of England be further reformed, which led to English Civil War
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572, massacre of 6-8,000 Huguenots in Paris authorized by King Charles IX and Catherine de Medici
a great fleet assembled by Spain in 1588 to invade England to stop them from raiding Spanish ships and return England to Catholicism. Defeated by British navy, marked decline of Spain as major power
English Bill of Rights
document drafted by Parliament that set limits on the monarch's power, prevented monarch from raising taxes without consent of Parliament, central to England's growth as a constitutional monarchy
mid 1500s King of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, opposition to Protestant Reformation brought Spain into a series of wars
mid 1500s, King of Spain, Naples, and Portugal, led Catholic efforts to recover Europe from Protestantism, defeated by England and Netherlands
King of France in late 1500s, issued Edict of Nantes, formed Huguenot, converted to Catholicism when took throne
Louis XIII & Richelieu
King of France in early 1600s, weak ruler who let Cardinal Richelieu his chief minister take charge
King of France from mid 1600s to early 1700s, known as Sun King, build palace at Versailles, drained France's wealth and series of war at end of his reign
King of England, Scotland and Ireland in early 1600s, conflict with Parliament started English Civil War
Mid 1600s, King of England Scotland and Ireland, asked by Parliament to rule England after death of Oliver Cromwell
Ivan the Terrible
• Mid 1500s, First Russian ruler to assume title of czar
• Instituted campaign of terror
• Sent away/killed all advisors, when wife died, became paranoid/crazy
• Killed thousands out of paranoia
Peter the Great
• Became Czar in 1682 when he was a child, so sister ruled until he could
• Wanted to modernize Russia
• Journeyed to Europe to see what Russia lacked
• Made reforms, adopted European lifestyles
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