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Terms in this set (251)
inner lining of the uterus
muscle layer of the uterus
outer layer of uterus
the hip is ____to the knee
proximal ( meaning near )
if wanted to separate the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity which body plane would you used
transverse ( means half )
contains heart and lungs
Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver, and other organs
You have been given a sample of tissue that has pillar-shaped cells arranged tightly together. The tissue you have is:
flat, scale-like cells composing the epidermis
cube shaped cells
Cells shaped like bricks standing on end.
the epidermis is classified as
which type of tissue provides support and structure for the organs
Within which epidermal layer of the skin does mitosis occur?
the orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the middle region of the humerus what area is is the surgeon describing
Going from superior to inferior, the sequence of the vertebral column is:
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
cells that form compact bone are called
which of the following is true of skeletal muscle
skeletal muscle attaches to bones by tendons
muscle contraction helps keep the body warm
skeletal muscles continuously contract to maintain posture
which of the following are needed for muscle cell to contract
calcium and adenosine triphosphate ( ATP )
If an impulse is traveling from a sense receptor toward the spinal cord, it is traveling along what type of neuron?
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
What does parathyroid hormone do?
increases blood calcium
Where are the pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors located?
near the origin of the internal carotid arteries on each side of the neck
detect changes in blood pressure
respond to chemicals
Bile is secreted into which organ?
What is the role of progesterone?
stimulate the development of the endometrium
Muscle that assists a prime mover
mixture of enzymes and partially-digested food
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
labor inducing hormone
Hormones are released
from the posterior lobe of the pituitary
Whole blood consists of
55% plasma, 45% formed elements
Blood serves to
Transport oxygen and nutrients to body cells and to carry away carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes
Plasma contains approximately
saliva is secreted by
Saliva is produced by?
Three pairs of salivary glands, that lubricates and dilutes the chewed food
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Breaks down food into smaller molecules. Absorbs these nutrients into the body.
tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
first part of the small intestine
third part of the small intestine
second part of the small intestine
Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the
Most of the fats are absorbed into the lymph by the
food enters stomach through
lower esophageal sphincter
The lining of various body cavities, including the nose, ears, and mouth
A layer of the human digestive system that contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymph nodes
smooth muscle tissue, circular and longitudinal fibers, pushes food
inner layer of pericardium
exchange of gases between lungs and blood
Exchange of gases between cells of the body and the blood
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
bound to hemoglobin
carbon dioxide is regulator of
Inhalation requires the contraction of what structure?
A. The lungs.
B. The lower respiratory tubules.
C. The diaphragm.
D. The upper respiratory tubules.
the heart is a
the five types of leukocytes can be distinguished on the basis
size, appearance of nucleus, stating properties, presence or visible cytoplasmic granules
Platelets are activated by
tissue destruction and inflammation
Vascular system consists of
the vessels of the body, which transport fluid, such as
blood or lymph.
the capillaries are the
Smallest blood vessels and waste products take place between the blood and surrounding tissues
Begin with aorta, branches to all parts of the body
A stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
the spinal cord is approximately
blood cell formation
6 paired bones
zygomatic, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, inferior conchae
The skull consists of how many bones?
28 14 facial bones and 14 cranial bones 2 maxillary bones, 2 zygomatic bones, 2 mandible ( the only moveable bone of the skull ) 2 palatine bones, 1 vomer, 2 lacrimal bones and two inferior nasal conchae
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter
body planes are
Imaginary lines used for reference.
Muscles that you are able to control
A muscle that is not under conscious control.
mitosis is necessary for
growth and repair of tissues
in the process of meiosis
The chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23, so when the egg and sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.
A pigment that gives the skin its color and protect against radiation of the sun
bone forming cells
mature bone cells
LH (luteinizing hormone)
(function of females- triggers ovulation stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone and stimulates formation of corpus luteum ) function in males- stimulates the secretion of testosterone
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
stimulates sperm production; stimulates oocyte production and estrogen secretion helps regulate the estrogen cycle
hepatic portal vein
the vein that collects blood from the GI tract and conducts it to the liver
feretilized egg travels to the uterus and plant itself within the
In the uterus the developing embryo is nourished by the placenta
which is is formed by maternal and embryonic tissues
during pregnancy hormones from the placenta maintain the
endometrium and prepare the mammary glands for breast milk production
human growth hormone
stimulates skeletal muscle growth to promote development in children whose progression is stunted and regulate aspects of metabolism
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
stimulates the production of T3 and T4 of the thyroid gland
brain region controlling the pituitary gland also inferior to the thalamus
under control of hypothalamus which produces two hormones which control anterior pituitary ( releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones )
only stores hormones that are made by the hypothalamus, does not make them
the hypthalamus secretes some hormone into the blood and they influence the
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary?
ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and TSH
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
stimulates secretion of hormones by adrenal cortex
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
thyroid hormone- maintains metabolic activity and keeps you engaged
ACTH acts on which target organ
what is the target organ for TSH
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
Brings oxygen into the body. Gets rid of carbon dioxide.
Transports oxygen, waste, nutrients, hormones, heat, etc... around the body
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
Main organs of the respiratory system
Filter blood from the renal arteries and produce urine as waste
A duct leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Elastic, hollow, muscular organ that provides temporary storage for urine.
Absorbs water and forms feces
a muscle that is connected to the skeleton to form part of the mechanical system that moves the limbs and other parts of the body. also striated and voluntary
make up the heart
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
where two bones meet
ball and socket joint
shoulder and hip
Joint between bones (as at the elbow or knee) that permits motion in only one plane
Consists of the ovaries uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females. Testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and urethra in males.
male gonads that produce testosterone
Glands that produce the egg cells and hormones
the system that controls the movement of the body
controls and communication network of the body
Female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus.
central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
carries impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
Made up of skin, nails, hair, organs, etc.
Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
regulates the effects of hormones on body function
The cells and tissues that recognize and attack foreign substances in the body
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
carry oxygen to cells ( your blood is red when you bleed becomes it contains oxygen )
white blood cells (leukocytes)
innate capacity to recognize and differentiate any foreign material- like a soldiers
parts of blood
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
the flow of the heart
deoxygenated blood to right and oxygenated blood to the left
System that works with the Circulatory System
respiratory system and digestive system
How do the circulatory and respiratory systems work together?
the lungs give oxygen to the bloodstream and the blood carries it to the cells
the blood takes carbon dioxide FROM cells and brings it back to the lungs to be released
force applied by blood to the artery walls
function of respiratory system
1. gets oxygen from air and gives to bloodstream ( inhaling )
2. releases carbon dioxide waste from cells ( exhaling )
3 . allow us to speak
Structures of the respiratory system
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Allows air to pass to and from lungs
tiny tubes branching off from each bronchi
tiny air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. where oxygen enters the blood stream and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood stream ( like a store )
voice box; contains vocal cords
upper chambers of the heart, receive blood from the lungs or body
Lower chambers of the heart, pump blood out of the heart
blood flow to and from the tissues of the heart itself
blood flow from heart to the lungs and back again
oxygen rich blood flows to all the organs and body tissues except the heart and lungs, oxygen rich blood returns to the heart
are blood vessels that direct blood away from the heart. they have thick elastic walls that contain smooth muscle tissue
thin walled. carry blood BACK to the heart contain one-way valves to prevent back flow of blood
aorta and pulmonary arteries
Largest veins are
superior and inferior vena cava
prevent back flow of blood
Stucture of the
controls flow of blood through all parts of body, four chambers, one way valves between atria and ventricles. septum
upper chambers of the heart
Number of chambers in the heart
What are the four chambers of the heart?
right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
the heat is muscular organ
about the size of your fist
Your heart pumps
oxygen poor blood into the lungs and oxygen rich blood to your body.
the heart circulates approximately
5-6 liters of blood per minute
approximate number of beats per by the heart
components, blood heart, blood vessels , transport materials to add from your cells
ability to maintain a stable internal environment
What are the levels of organization?
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What is a tissue?
group of cells with similar structure and function
what are four basic types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
muscles : biceps ( skeletal ), stomach ( smooth ),heart ( cardiac )
nervous: central nervous system ( CNS ) peripheral nerves ( PNS )
connective : blood, bone and fat
epithelial: skin and cavity linings
what is muscles tissue
formed by muscles cells
can contract or shorten
makes parts of body move
What is nervous tissue?
- carried electrical messages back and forth between the brain and other parts of the body
- directs and controls movement process
ex. brain cells
What is connective tissue?
- provides support for the body
- connects all of its parts
- ex. bone tissue and fats
what is epithelial tissue
- covers the surface of your body inside and out
- protects the delicate structure beneath it
- ex. skin and lungs of your digestive system
What is an organ?
A structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue.
what organs contain all four kinds of tissues
What is a organ system?
group of organs that work together
how many organs systems are there
What are the organ systems?
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
How do you maintain homeostasis?
sweating and shivering help regulate our temperature
Connect bone to bone
Connect muscle to bone
Flexible connective tissue that lacks blood supply
releases excess water and releases the wastes from the body. I.E kidneys and bladders
what are three types of muscles
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
the muscles found in organs, blood vessels, and glands
Involuntary muscle tissue found only in the heart.
everything we see, hear, and respond to
thoughts and emotions
indicates correct value ( body temp )
-produces a response e.g.muscle contracts to move hand away from stimulus or gland squeezes and releases hormone into blood.
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus
homeostatic system where the response to a stimulus is to push it even further
ex. are blood clotting and labor contraction
left and right
front and back
cranial and spinal cavity
contains the brain
contains the spinal cord
cavity that contains the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves
orbits, nasal,oral , thoracic, mediastrum, pericardial, plueral, and abdominopelvic ( peritoneal )
ventral cavities ( near the front of the body )
cavity that is divided into right and left portions by the nasal spetum, air - filled sphenoid and frontal sinues
cavity that contains the tongue and teeth
toward the midline
contains the heart
space between the lungs
middle ear cavities
Cavity containing the incus, malleus, stapes
single layer of flat cells
secretion and absorption and cube shaped
Forms the lining of the stomach and small intestine
(EPETHELIAL)many layers of flat cells. Skin and body orfices
secretes into the ducts that opens onto an open surface ( skin or GI tract
secrete into tissue fluid or blood
Glands that release fluid products by exocytosis
Sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete thicker sweat, that produce odor when come in contact with bacteria on the skin and releases and bit of cytoplasm in its secretion
open to skins surface when it is hot, they let heat escape in form of sweat to reduce body temperature by process called "evaporate cooling"
the four types of membranes
mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body
The skin; composed of epidermal and dermal layers
In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.
Flexible and "stretchy" fibers that add elasticity to tissue
What keeps bones from rubbing together?
What are cartilage cells called?
bones gets its hardness from
Tissue that stores fat.
forms when adipocytes stores fat in their cytoplasm
layers of epidermis
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
include cutaneous glands, hair and hair follicles, and nails
the hair follicle is made up of
dead epithelial cells
Muscle that reduces the angle of a joint
muscles that increase the angle of a joint
Draw a limb away from the midline
Return the limb back toward the body
a muscles of large size
shaped like a delta or triangle ( shoulder )
a muscle with two heads ( biceps ) or joints of orgin in the branchum ( arm )
name three parts of the neuron
axon, dendrites, cell body
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
part of the neurons that arises from elevation called axonal hilock, and conducts nerve impluses away from the cell body
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
sensory (afferent) neurons
neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
motor (efferent) neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
two way conduction pathway between areas of the brain and other of the body, influencing respiration
two way conduction pathways used as relay for visual and auditory impulses the smallest part of the brain
brainstems consist of three parts
medulla oblongata, soma, midbrain
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Balance and coordination
largest part of the brain controls voluntary movement ( controls emotions, willed movement, consciousness and memory )
what does the brain consist of
white and gray matter
cardiac muscle is also
self exciting and rythmic
central canals contain___ and ___
blood vessels and nerve fibers
End of the bones are called
shaft of a long bone
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