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gas exchange and circulation
warm up week eight
Terms in this set (70)
what happen to the partial pressure of a gas as elevation increase?
The partial pressure of a gas decrease as elevation increase!
Four major factor that affect the ability of a gas:
1) the solubility of the gas in water
2) the temperature of water
3) the presence of other solutes
4) the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the water
Insect tracheal system:
one of the small air filled tubes that extend throughout the body and function in gas exchange
in insects, a small opening that connects air filled tracheac to the external environment, allowing for gas exchange
the air way connecting the larynx to the brochi. Also called windpipe.
in mammals, one of a pair of large tubes that lead from the trachea to each lung
one of the small tubes in mammalian lungs that carry air from the bronchi to the alveoli
any respiratory organ used for gas exchanges between blood and air
one of the tiny airfilled sacs of a mammalian lung
elements of the blood
white blood cells
red blood cells
a small membrane-bound cell fragment in vertebrate blood that function in blood clotting derived from large cells in the bone marrow.
white blood cell
(leukocytes) several type of blood cells including heutrophils, macrophase, and lyphocyle that ciculate in blood and lymph and fuction in defense against pathogen.
Red blood cells
a hemoglobin containing cell that ciculates in the blood and delivers oxygen from te lung to the tissue, also called erythrocyctes.
what is the function of hemoglobin?
an oxygen binding, protein consisting of four polypetide subunits, each containing an oxygen binding heme group, the major oxygen carrier in mammalian blood.
element of the circulatory system
a muscular pump that circulate blood throughout the body
a thich walled blood vessel that carries blood under relatively high pressure away from the heart to organ throughout body
one of the many tiny vessel that carry blood from arteries to capillaries
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
A ringlike valve consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, such as a digestive tract; closes off the tube like a drawstring.
a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it
what is interstitial fluid?
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
systolic blood pressure
pressure in the artery when the left ventricle is contracting to force the blood into the aorta and other arteries
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest.
A group of cells located in the right atrium that sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract and that regulates heartbeat rate
where in the heart are the pacemaker cells?
located in the right atrium
Why do cells need O2 and release CO2?
Cells must obtain oxygen and expel carbon dioxide continuously to support ATP production by mitochondria.
Describe the steps in gas exchange.
2) Gas exchange
4) Cellular respiration
Ventilation and gas exchange are accomplished by the respiratory system.
The circulatory system is responsible for moving O2, CO2, and other materials around the body.
Circulatory systems are classified as closed or open.
In a closed circulatory system, the system of vessels is continuous.
In an open circulatory system, at least some vessels open into portions of the body cavity.
Why does gas move through the body?
Discuss how diffusion occurs...b/c cells are using O2 there will always be more o2 in the blood than the tissues. b/c releasing co2 there will always be more co2 in tissues than blood. Also talk about venous blood to lungs.
How does gas exchange differ between aquatic organisms and terrestrial organisms?
More challenging, because water contains much less oxygen than air does.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into water from the atmosphere.
The amount of gas that dissolves in water depends on:
(1) the solubility of the gas in water,
(2) the temperature of the water,
(3) the presence of other solutes, and
(4) the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the water.
More consumers in cold water, one of reasons is amount of dissolved o2. Most fish need a DO of 6 ppm, below 2 kills. Jellyfish and small insects decomposers do fine at 2 ppm....this is a problem!
Many small animals exchange gases by direct diffusion across the body surface. They mostly must live in wet environments.
Large animals, or those that live in dry environments, need a specialized organ for gas exchange.
Respiratory organs provide a greater surface area for gas exchange.
what is partial pressure? how do you determine the partial pressure of a gas?
Partial pressure is the pressure of a particular gas in a mixture of gases.
Gasses diffuse along their respective partial-pressure gradients from high pressure to low pressure.
All gasses in atmosphere total to 760 mmHg at sea level. As get away from sea level, less gas molecules means less pressure. Actual percentage of gas doesn't change but the amount changes
How does Fick's law of diffusion explain why organisms increase surface area for gas exchange and reduce the thickness of the respiratory surface?
O2 and CO2 diffuse in the greatest amounts when three conditions are met:
-the surface area for gas exchange is large,
-the respiratory surface is extremely thin, and
-the partial pressure gradient of the gas across the surface is large.
Discuss direct and inverse correlation also a direct correlation with partial pressure difference
Describe the structure of fish gills and explain how the gills work as a counter-currentexchanger.?
=Fish ventilate their gills by opening and closing their mouths and a stiff gill flap.
=Movement of water over gills is unidirectional.
=Long, thin structures called gill filaments extend from each gill arch. Each gill filament is composed of hundreds or thousands of gill lamellae—sheetlike structures through which a bed of capillaries runs
=Gills are efficient solutions to the problems posed by water breathing, because they present an extremely large surface area for oxygen to diffuse across an extremely thin epithelium.
=Among invertebrates, the structure of gills is extremely diverse
-internal or external
=Bony fish have internal gills and all are similar in structure.
-Water must be driven over them in the process of ventilation.
The flow of blood through the capillaries is in the opposite direction to the flow of water over the gill surface.
Countercurrent flow makes the difference in the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in water versus blood is large over the entire gas-exchange surface.
Contrast the insect tracheae with lungs of other organisms.
=The tips of tracheae are tiny, filled with fluid, and highly branched. Therefore, the tracheal system transports air close enough to cells for gas exchange to take place directly across their plasma membranes.
=As a result, insects do not require a circulatory system to transport gases to and from tissues.
=Breathing movements may play a role in gas exchange in some insects.
The tracheae consist of a series of tubes extending throughout the insect body. The system connects to the exterior through openings called spiracles, which can be closed to minimize water loss.
What causes air to enter and leave the lungs
One mechanism for pumping air is positive pressure ventilation, in which air is pushed into the lungs. Frogs use this mechanism to breathe.
Humans and other mammals pull air into their lungs via negative pressure ventilation.
Contrast avian lungs with mammalian lungs. Explain why the avian lung is more
Humans inhale by lowering the negative pressure in the chest cavity.
As the pressure surrounding the lungs drops, air flows into the airways along a pressure gradient.
Exhalation, in contrast, is a passive process driven by the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall as the diaphragm and rib muscles relax.
Birds are able to extract enough oxygen for extremely long flights and flights at high elevations.
Gas exchange occurs in millions of spongelike air cells that extend laterally along the length of the parabronchi.
Air flow is unidirectional in the bird ventilatory system.
together w/ the endocrine system controls & integrates the actions of different parts of the body
helps preserve homeostasis by rapidly adjusting the functions of organs or organ sytems
two types of control symptoms. nervous system is fast, endocrine is slow but lasts longer. Insulin to take care of high glucose reduction
Pathway leaving the sensor and going to the control center
Pathway leaving the control center and going to the effector
somatic nervous system
affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit, the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
the part of the autonomic nervous system assisting the body in emergencies, defense, and survival
the branch of the nervous system that automatically calms us down when the reason for arousal has passed
The basic unit of the nervous system, each composed of a cell body, receptive extentions (dendrites), and a transmitting extension (axon)
difference in the electrical charge in/out of cell
(-) inside, (+) outside normal= -70
more perm. to K and not to Na- maintained by pumps to move 3 Na+ for each 2 K+ it brings into cell
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
Channels that are open or closed by changes in membrane potential. (Change in charge gradient)
ligands are molecules that bind to receptors. receptor: protein or glycoprotein w/ a receptor site. example: neurotransmitters. gate is closed until neurotransmitter attaches to receptor molecule. when Ach attaches to receptor on muscle cell, Na gate opens. Na moves into cell due to concentration gradient.
the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
also induration; the process of becoming extremely firm or hard, or having such properties
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane.
Excitatory postsynaptic potential; a slight depolarization of a postsynaptic cell, bringing the membrane potential of that cell closer to the threshold for an action potential.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential; a slight hyperpolarization of the postysynaptic cell, moving the membrane potential of that cell further from threshold.
physical or chemical changes in an organism's internal or external environment (ex. changes in color, intensity, or direction of light; changes in temperature, pressure, or sound; and changes in the chemical composition of the surrounding soil, air, or water)
trying to give someone information or make them understand something, make known; pass on information; carry from one place to another
an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body
sliding filament theory
theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still
The body system of nervous tissues--organized into the brain,spinal courd, and nerves--that send and receive messages and integreate the body's activities.
Action potential => Depolarization opens Ca channels, inducing NT release. These bind to the motor end plate and depolarizes it => Depolarization travels down the T-tubules. => Dihyrdopyridine Ca channel senses the voltage change and opens, causing Ca release => Ca release affects the Ryanodine receptor, causing those channels on the SR to open (CiCr) => Ca binds to Troponin C => moves tropomyosin out of the myosin-binding groove on actin filaments. => Power stroke and contraction.
a complex process in which nerve inpulses first reach a neuromuscular junction in the sarcolemma, which causes the Ca+ ions to be released; in turn, the Ca+ causes myosin to bind ot actin, which then allows the actin myofilaments to slide past the myosin myofilaments; ATP is alos needed to supply energy for contraction
The synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell. At the NMJ, the muscle cel lmembrane is invaginated and the axon terminus is elongated so that a greater area of membrane can be depolarized at one time.
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