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56 terms

Drugs

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Empiric therapy
What is it called if they give antibiotics before getting the cultures back?
Sulfonamides
They inhibit the growth of the bacteria and DO NOT destroy the bacteria. The problem with most antibiotics including this one is that they interfere with all sorts of drugs. Specifically anticoagulants. People who have been known to have an allergy or sensitivity to sulfonamides. Photosensitivity to light, gastric upset, more severe reactions include seizures.
Penicillin
They kill both gram (+) and gram (-) organisms. Penicillin is an example of a Beta Lactam because of its chemical structure. Typically very safe unless someone is allergic to it. BE SURE TO GO FURTHER AND ASK WHAT HAPPENED WHEN THEY GOT SICK. It's possible that the client experiences side effects that are a normal reaction to the drug, these would not be allergies. A true allergy would be if the person could not breathe, or they needed to bring a crash cart in, or administer Benadryl.
It must be taken with at least 6oz of water. IT MUSTNEVER BE TAKEN WITH FRUIT JUICE, WHICH CAN NEUTRALIZE THE DRUG.
What should oral penicillin be given with?
Benzathine and Procaine (NEVER BY IV)
What are the injectable penicillin's?
Benzathine and Procaine
THEY SHOULD NEVER BE GIVEN BY IV, SUCH MISUSE CAN BE FATAL
Antibiotics, anticoagulants
What can herbal meds interfere with?
Kefzol, Maxipime, Mefoxin, and Rocephin
What are cephalosporins?
Cephalosporins
These KILL gram (+) and gram (-) organisms but NOT FUNGI AND VIRUSES
It is given prior to surgery. They are likely to have a lot less infections post op if they get an infusion of antibiotic (COMPLETED NOT STARTED) half hour before first incision.
When is Mefoxin usually given?
It is given for patients with pneumonia. ONLY IV DRUG
What is Rocephin high effective for?
Doxycycline, tetracycline, and vibramycin
What are Tetracyclines?
Tetracyclines
They should NEVER BE GIVEN WITH ANTACIDS, IRON PREPRATIONS, DAIRY PRODUCTS, IF YOUR ON Coumadin, IT CAN INCREASE ITS EFFECTS. These drugs can also potentiate (increase) the effect of oral anticoagulant.
Tetracyclines
IT PASSES IN BRESTMILK TO THE CHILD AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED FOR USE IN CHILDREN BECAUSE IT CAN AFFECT BONE AND TOOTH DEVELOPMENT.
Tetracyclines
It is popular for skin structure infections and also used for more severe infections such as Lyme's disease/Rocky mountain spotted fever. ALSO CAN CAUSE PHOTOSENSITIVITY, THEY SHOULD AVOID DIRECT SUNLIGHT AND TANNING.
Tetracyclines
These drugs can cause an overgrowth of certain organisms in the lower GI tract because it will over stimulate production of certain bacteria (pseudo membranous colitis)
Vancomycin
It is a bactericidal and not related to any other antibiotic Used for the treatment of MRSA and other gram (+) infections It has a lot of lower GI effects and can treat C-Diff
Vancomycin
If bad kidney functions (not recommended to use with this drug) It can cause Red Man's Syndrome and is treated the same way as an allergic reaction such as with
Vancomycin
Benadryl or epinephrine (subcu). They DO NOT JUST STOP it if the person develops red mans syndrome, there is no permanent damage.
Vancomycin
There is a narrow therapeutic window for this drug, if drug levels are too high you can damage the kidneys and cause neurological problems. They do a Vancomycin Peak and Trough test. Trough a half hour before the dose and the peak a half hour after it finished (Done by IV) This is how they determine the blood level.
Vancomycin
Red Man syndrome can be caused by too quick of an infusion.
Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox
What are fluroquinolones?
Fluroquinolones
These are Bactericidal and they are Broad Spectrum antibiotics
Fluroquinolones
Complicated UTI's which doesn't response to antibiotics at first or pyelonephritis or cardiac infections (Possible cardiac arrhythmia, do NOT give it if there is a history)
Fluroquinolones
When given oral, DO NOT GIVE WITH ANTACAIDS, IRON PREPRARTIONS, OR ZINC
Fluroquinolones
Dennis says: "When you take an antibiotic orally and take in anything that changes the pH of your gastric secretions, these all affect the absorption" (Other examples: Citric juice, maalox, antacids, zinc, zinc lozenges)
Cipro
One of the features, after you finish it there is a post antibiotic affect (PAE). It will continue working in the body double the time. Both oral and IV. It is highly effective against respiratory infections such as pneumonia. There is also cipro eye drops.
Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Dirithromycin, Erthromycin
What are Macrolides?
Macrolides
They inhibit protein synthesis in the bacteria for a wide range of infections, specifically lower respiratory infections (lower pneumonia in the lungs) and complicated skin structure infections. These drugs irritate the gastric track a lot. If someone is constipated these drugs can have a desirable effect as well.
Macrolides
These drugs have a PAE effect.
Zithromax Z-Pak (azithromycin)?
It comes on a card with 8 tablets. Usually 2 tablets the first day and then every one every 6 days after.
Flagyl
It is used for intra-abdominal and Gynecological infections. It is administered by orally and IV. It works by interfering with DNA synthesis within the cell. Anti-convulsive (Dilantin and Phenobarbital) medication can reduce this drugs effect. It has to be given at certain times to have this effect,
Flagyl
Alcohol will cause problems. Do not use Flagly during the first trimester of pregnancy. It can increase the toxicity of many other drugs. Flagly is also an anti-fungul drugs
Antifungals
These can cross into the brain for an infection (Meningitis)
Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
Widely used for treatment of Candida
Diflucan
Can be used for fungal gynecological (Oral or Injectable)
Aspirin
It's a salicylate, an NSAID, can be used for fever. This should NOT be given to children with flu like symptoms as their a chance they can develop Reye's syndrome
Acetaminophen
It has an antipyretic effect via direct action on the hypothalamic heat regulating center.
Acetaminophen
This is the drug of choice for children with flu like symptoms
Acetaminophen
Excess use can cause fatal Hepatic necrosis
Ibuprofen
It's an NSAID - often used for inflammatory pain such as osteoarthritis
Ibuprofen
Can be used in fever 200-400mg PO Q4-6hrs Use lowest effective dose, give with food.
Ibuprofen
There is a risk for GI bleeding. Long term use is associated with increased risk for MI and stroke.
Toradol
(injection or oral by prescription) is an alternative to giving an opioid painkiller
Topicort
Is a anti-inflammatory and is a local inflammation drug. Patients who are using long term or over a large surface area may be at risk for developing Cushing Syndrome (excess cortisol)
Topicort
You might develop a round face, decreased body fat on arms and legs, water retention, sodium problems.
Dapsone
It interferes with bacteria synthesis. It is used for treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis
Dapsone
This medication can cause serious anemia's. CBC's must be done on regular basis to monitor effects
Tetracyclines
Doxycycline
Tetracyclines
tetracycline
Tetracyclines
vibramycin
fluroquinolones
Cipro
fluroquinolones
Levaquin
fluroquinolones
Avelox
Gram Staining
Gram staining (or Gram's method) is an empirical method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls.[1] The Gram stain is almost always the first step in the identification of a bacterial organism.
sulfonamides
Photosensitivity to light, gastric upset, more severe reactions include seizures.