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BIOL 1322- EXAM 1 REVIEW CHAPTERS 3 & 14
Terms in this set (24)
What structural features of the small intestine allow for an increase in surface area for nutrition absorption?
Villi and microvilli
What nutrients are absorbed into the circulatory system (blood)?
What nutrients are absorbed first into the lymph system?
Circulatory system: sugars, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, minerals
Lymph: lipids, fat-soluble vitamins
What 4 accessory organs are involved in the process of digestion? What is the main function of each?
Salivary glands - secretes saliva (lubrication and digestive enzymes)
Liver - makes bile
Gallbladder - stores bile
Pancreas - releases insulin, digestive enzymes, sodium bicarbonate
What is the difference between peristalsis and segmentation?
Peristalsis - rhythmic, wavelike contractions that propel food through the entire GI tract
Segmentation - contraction of circular muscles in small intestine that mix intestinal fluids and allow them to come in contact with villi/microvilli
Explain the process of digestion from beginning to end.
Mouth - chemical/mechanical digestion
Esophagus - peristalsis
Stomach - chemical/mechanical digestion
Small intestine - segmentation, nutrient absorption
Large intestine - water absorption
The immune system of a person with celiac disease is reacting to what protein?
Gluten - so foods and beverages containing gluten should not be consumed
What is inflammatory bowel disease?
General name for diseases that cause inflammation and irritation of the GI tract. Includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
What is an enzyme?
A protein synthesized by cells to catalyze, or facilitate, a specific chemical reaction involving other substances without itself being altered. An enzyme can be used to complete the reaction multiple times.
The variability among living organisms and the ecological habitats of which they are a part. This includes diversity within and between species and of ecosystems.
What is the difference between the two types of passive diffusion?
Both simple and facilitated diffusion involve movement of a substance across a cell membrane and down a concentration gradient. However, facilitated diffusion needs the assistance of a specific transport protein.
What populations are at risk for food insecurity?
Households that lack access to safe and nutritious foods - people experiencing poverty or unemployment, people who live in food deserts, older adults, college students, children who live in a household with a single parent
Name some genetically modified (GM) foods grown in the United States.
Inadequate nourishment caused by insufficient dietary intake of energy and/or one or more essential nutrients or poor absorption and/or use of nutrients in the body.
Name some nutrition assistance programs in the US that help promote food security.
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Formerly referred to as the Food Stamp Program
Which type of transport involves moving a substance against a concentration gradient and requires energy input and a carrier protein?
What condition causes small pouches or pockets to form in the lining of the colon?
Describe mechanical digestion.
Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food by mastication (chewing) and mixing with digestive fluids.
Describe the organization of cells in the human body. Give an example, when possible.
Cell - smallest functional unit of living organisms
Tissue - collection of cells that have similar origin (epithelial tissue in small intestine)
Organ - assembly of cells of different tissue types (small intestine)
Organ system - groups of organs that work together (gastrointestinal system)
Name some food sources of probiotics.
Name some food sources of prebiotics.
Probiotics: yogurt, buttermilk, kefir, soy, tempeh, miso, kimchi, kombucha
Prebiotics: chicory, onion, garlic, leeks, wheat, barley, rye, oats, lentils, black beans, kidney beans, soybeans
What does "sustainability" mean for food?
A sustainable food system implies safety and security of the foods supple, a strong food industry in terms of jobs and growth, and, at the same time, environmental sustainability in terms of biodiversity, water and soil quality
Put these foods in order from most greenhouse gas producers to least greenhouse gas producers:
What are causes of water shortages around the world?
Overuse of water
Increased water demand
What does the term 'organic' mean in reference to foods?
Organically grown food, which includes both plant and animal products, has been produced through approved methods that integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster the recycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. No synthetic fertilizers or pesticides are used.
What are some ways to improve the sustainability of your diet?
Grow a garden
Avoid food waste
Eat enough, not excess
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