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88 terms

Chemistry Final

Semester 2
STUDY
PLAY
diprotic acid
acid with two ionizable protons
hydrogen-ion donor
Brønsted-Lowry acid
Lewis acid
can accept an electron pair
pH
negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
Which polyatomic ion forms a neutral compound when combined with a group 1A monatomic ion in a 1:1 ratio?
nitrate
Sulfur hexafluoride is an example of a ____.
binary compound
Which of the following is a binary molecular compound?
PCl₅
Consider a mystery compound having the formula MxTy. If the compound is not an acid, if it contains only two elements, and if M is not a metal, which of the following is true about the compound?
It is a binary molecular compound.
Which of the following shows both the correct formula and correct name of an acid?
H₃PO₄, phosphoric acid
Which of the following pairs of substances best illustrates the law of multiple proportions?
NO and NO₂
How many hydrogen atoms are in 5 molecules of isopropyl alcohol, C₃H₇O?
35
All of the following are equal to Avogadro's number EXCEPT ____.
the number of atoms of bromine in 1 mol Br₂
How many moles of tungsten atoms are in 4.8 x 10²⁵ atoms of tungsten?
8.0 x 10¹ moles
How many atoms are in 0.075 mol of titanium?
4.5 x 10²²
How many molecules are in 2.10 mol CO₂?
1.26 x 10²⁴ molecules
What is true about the molar mass of chlorine gas?
The molar mass is 71.0 g.
What is the molar mass of (NH₄)₂CO₃?
96 g
What is the mass of silver in 3.4 g AgNO₃?
2.2 g
What is the mass of oxygen in 250 g of sulfuric acid, H₂SO₄?
160 g
The volume of one mole of a substance is 22.4 L at STP for all ____.
gases
Which combination of temperature and pressure correctly describes standard temperature and pressure, STP?
0°C and 101 kPa
What is the volume, in liters, of 0.500 mol of C₃H₈ gas at STP?
11.2 L
What is the density at STP of the gas sulfur hexafluoride, SF₆?
6.52 g/L 24
Given 1.00 mole of each of the following gases at STP, which gas would have the greatest volume?
All would have the same volume.
If the density of a noble gas is 1.783 g/L at STP, that gas is ____.
Ar
To determine the formula of a new substance, one of the first steps is to find the ____.
percent composition
What is the percent composition of chromium in BaCrO₄?
20.5%
Which expression represents the percent by mass of nitrogen in NH₄NO₃?
28 g N/80 g NH₄NO₃ x 100%
Which of the following compounds has the highest oxygen content, by weight?
H₂O
Which of the following compounds have the same empirical formula?
C₇H₁₄ and C₁₀H₂₀
What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 40% sulfur and 60% oxygen by weight?
SO₃
What is the empirical formula of a substance that is 53.5% C, 15.5% H, and 31.1% N by weight?
C₂H₈N
The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in a molecule of dicyclohexyl maleate is 4 to 6 to 1. What is its molecular formula if its molar mass is 280 g?
C₁₆H₂₄O₄
Which of the following sets of empirical formula, molar mass, and molecular formula is correct?
CH₄N, 90 g, C₃H₁₂N₃
What are the coefficients that will balance the skeleton equation below?
AlCl₃ + NaOH → Al(OH)₃ + NaCl
1, 3, 1, 3
What are the missing coefficients for the skeleton equation below?
Cr(s) + Fe(NO₃)₂(aq) → Fe(s) + Cr(NO₃)₃(aq)
2, 3, 3, 2
What are the missing coefficients for the skeleton equation below?
Al₂(SO₄)₃(aq) + KOH(aq) → Al(OH)₃(aq) + K₂SO₄(aq)
1, 6, 2, 3
In order for the reaction 2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl₃ + 3H₂ to occur, which of the following must be true?
Al must be above H on the activity series.
When the equation for the complete combustion of one mole of C₃H₇OH is balanced, the coefficient
for oxygen is ____.
9/2
Which of the following statements is NOT true about double-replacement reactions?
The reactant may be a solid metal.
Which of the following is an INCORRECT interpretation of the balanced equation shown below?
2S(s) + 3O₂(g) → 2SO₃(g)
2 g S + 3 g O₂ → 2 g SO₃
How many moles of glucose, C₆H₁₂O₆, can be "burned" biologically when 10.0 mol of oxygen is available?
C₆H₁₂O₆(s) + 6O₂(g) → 6CO₂(g) + 6H₂O(l)
1.67 mol
The equation below shows the decomposition of lead nitrate. How many grams of oxygen are produced when 11.5 g NO₂ is formed?
2Pb(NO₃)₂(s)→2PbO(s)+4NO₂(g)+O₂(g)
2.00 g
Iron(III) oxide is formed when iron combines with oxygen in the air. How many grams of Fe₂O₃ are
formed when 16.7 g of Fe reacts completely with oxygen?
4Fe(s)+3O₂(g)→2Fe₂O₃(s)
23.9 g
When glucose is consumed, it reacts with oxygen in the body to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. How many grams of carbon dioxide would be produced if 45 g of C₆H₁₂O₆ completely
reacted with oxygen?
66 g
Aluminum reacts with sulfuric acid to produce aluminum sulfate and hydrogen gas. How many grams of aluminum sulfate would be formed if 250 g H₂SO₄ completely reacted with aluminum?
2Al(s)+3H₂SO₄(aq)→Al₂(SO₄)₃(aq)+3H₂(g)
290 g
Mercury can be obtained by reacting mercury(II) sulfide with calcium oxide. How many grams of calcium oxide are needed to produce 36.0 g of Hg?
4HgS(s) + 4CaO(s) → 4Hg(l) + 3CaS(s) + CaSO₄
10.1 g
How many moles of H₃PO₄ are produced when 71.0 g P₄O₁₀ reacts completely to form H₃PO₄?
P₄O₁₀(s)+6H₂O(l)→4H₃PO₄(aq)
1.00 mol
How many grams of H₃PO₄ are produced when 10.0 moles of water react with an excess of P₄O₁₀?
P₄O₁₀(s)+6H₂O(l)→4H₃PO₄(aq)
653 g
How many liters of hydrogen gas are needed to react with CS₂ to produce 2.50 L of CH₄ at STP?
4H₂(g)+CS₂(l)→CH₄(g)+2H₂S(g)
10.0 L
Which of the following statements is true about the following reaction?
3NaHCO₃(aq) + C₆H₈O₇(aq) → 3CO₂(g) + 3H₂O(s) +Na₃C₆H₅O₇(aq)
1 mole of water is produced for every mole of carbon dioxide produced.
Glucose, C₆H₁₂O₆, is a good source of food energy. When it reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water are formed. How many liters of CO₂ are produced when 126 g of glucose completely react
with oxygen?
C₆H₁₂O₆(s) + 6O₂(g) → 6CO₂(g) + 6H₂O(l) + 673 kcal
94.1 L
Identify the limiting reagent and the volume of CO₂ formed when 11 L CS₂ reacts with 18 L O₂ to produce CO₂ gas and SO₂ gas at STP.
CS₂(g) + 3O₂(g) → CO₂(g) + 2SO₂(g)
O₂; 6.0 L CO₂
What is the maximum number of grams of PH₃ that can be formed when 6.2 g of phosphorus reacts with 4.0 g of hydrogen to form PH₃?
P₄(g) + 6H₂(g) → 4PH₃(g)
6.8 g
Metallic copper is formed when aluminum reacts with copper(II) sulfate. How many grams of
metallic copper can be obtained when 54.0 g of Al react with 319 g of CuSO4?
Al + 3CuSO4 # Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu
127 g
Lead nitrate can be decomposed by heating. What is the percent yield of the decomposition reaction if
9.9 g Pb(NO3)2 are heated to give 5.5 g of PbO?
2Pb(NO3)2(s) # 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
82%
In a particular reaction between copper metal and silver nitrate, 12.7 g Cu produced 38.1 g Ag. What
is the percent yield of silver in this reaction?
Cu + 2AgNO3 # Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
88.2%
Why does air escape from a tire when the tire valve is opened?
The pressure outside the tire is lower than the pressure inside the tire.
A gas occupies a volume of 2.4 L at 14.1 kPa. What volume will the gas occupy at 84.6 kPa?
0.40 L
A sample of gas occupies 17 mL at -112°C. What volume does the sample occupy at 70°C?
36mL
If a balloon containing 3000 L of gas at 39°C and 99 kPa rises to an altitude where the pressure is
45.5 kPa and the temperature is 16°C, the volume of the balloon ucalculated using the following conversion factor ratios: ____.
3000L x (289/312) x (99/45.5)
How is the ideal gas law usually written?
PV = nRT
An ideal gas CANNOT be ____.
condensed
Under what conditions of temperature and pressure is the behavior of real gases most like that of
ideal gases?
low temperature and high pressure
A breathing mixture used by deep-sea divers contains helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. What is
the partial pressure of oxygen at 101.4 kPa if PHe = 82.5 kPa and PCO
2 = 0.4 kPa?
18.5 kPa
When a container is filled with 3.00 moles of H2, 2.00 moles of O2, and 1.00 mole of N2, the
pressure in the container is 768 kPa. What is the partial pressure of O2?
256 kPa
The tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration is called ____.
diffusion
Which of the following gases will effuse the most rapidly?
hydrogen
What is the molarity of a solution containing 7.0 moles of solute in 569 mL of solution?
12M
What is the molarity of 200 mL of solution in which 2.0 moles of sodium bromide is dissolved?
10M
What is the number of moles of solute in 250 mL of a 0.4M solution?
0.1 mol
What is the molarity of a solution containing 56 grams of solute in 959 mL of solution? (molar mass
of solute = 26 g/mol)
2.2M
What mass of sucrose, C12H22O11, is needed to make 500.0 mL of a 0.200M solution?
34.2 g
What mass of Na2SO4 is needed to make 2.5 L of 2.0M solution? (Na = 23 g; S = 32 g; O = 16 g)
710 g
What is the mole fraction of ethanol in a solution of 3.00 moles of ethanol and 5.00 moles of water?
0.375
Which of the following is a condensed structural formula for propane?
CH3CH2CH3
The name for an alkyl group that contains two carbon atoms is ____.
ethyl
What is the physical state of the smallest alkanes at room temperature?
gas
What is the general formula for a straight-chain alkane?
C(n)H(2n+2)
The general name for hydrocarbons with at least one triple covalent bond is ____.
alkynes
What is the name of the smallest alkyne?
ethyne
What compound is the simplest aromatic compound?
benzene
What is the main hydrocarbon component of natural gas?
methane
What is the first step in the refining of petroleum?
distillation
Which of the following is NOT a fraction obtained from crude oil?
ammonia
What type of compound is CH3-O-CH2-CH2-CH3?
ether
The functional group in CH3-O-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 is a(n) ____
ether
Esters contribute which property to fruits?
odor