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Terms in this set (38)
There are 2 kinds of categorical (qualitative) variables: Nominal and Ordinal. What is the difference between them (give examples)?
-Nominal: Distinct, unordered categories with names (Ex: Coat color-roan, gray, black)
-Ordinal: Categories have intrinsic order (Ex: BCS)
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
-Qualitative: Distinct categories
-Quantitative: Consisting of numerical values on a well-defined scale
Prior to analyzing data, many investigators will perform a test to determined the normality of the data. Why is normality important?
-Normally distributed data can be described by mean and SD
-Normal distributions can be analyzed by different tests than are chi-squared distributions (skewed) or F-distributions (comparison of 2 variances that are both normally distributed)
You want to perform an objective test for normality of your data. What test will you use? How do you interpret its result?
Shapiro-Wilk test
(p-value low = evidence non-normal)
The ________________ is a measure of the scatter of the observations. It gives an indication of the typical distance observations are to their mean.
Standard deviation
What is the difference between a parallel group design and crossover design?
-Parallel: Each individual only receives one tx, with comparisons being made b/w animals
-Crossover: Apply 2 or more txs in succession to each individ animal, comparing the response to tx w/i animals
What are the pros of a crossover study design over a parallel one?
-Enhances precision of the estimate of the difference b/w treatments
-Reduces necessary sample size
The _____________ is the chance of getting the observed effect (or an effect more extreme) if the null hypothesis is true.
P-value
What is one major assumption when using a one- or two- sample t-test?
Data are from a normally distributed population
What is the difference b/w a:
-One-sample t-test
-Two-sample t-test
-One: Analyzes the mean of one group (compared to the null)
-Two: Compares the means in 2 independent groups
We use the _________________ when two representative samples from the population comprise dependent or paired observations. This can involve self-pairing (eg each animal used as own control in a crossover trial) or artificial pairing where two animals are matched together based on a particular factor.
Paired t-test
What is the difference b/w a:
-Two-sample t-test
-Paired t-test
-Two: Compares the means in 2 independent groups
-Paired: Compares the means in 2 dependent groups
The ______________ is an expression used to describe the comparison of the means of 2 or more groups by investigating the relevant variances.
ANOVA (analysis of variance)
The _______________ may be used to analyze repeated measures of a particular factor on each individual at successive time points.
One-way ANOVA
A ______________ is essentially an extension of a two-sample t-test in that they both compare means between more than one group, and when looking at just two groups, both tests will give the same p-value.
One-way ANOVA
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