American History ch.9&10 (chspc)
Terms in this set (28)
How did Congress protect squatters?
Congress passed the Preemption Act of 1830 that guaranteed squatters the right to claim land before it was surveyed and the right to but put to 160 acres for the government's minimum price of $1.25 per acre.
Why did Native Americans begin to fear American settlers who migrated west?
Native Americans feared the threat that immigration posed to their way of life. They worried that increasing flow of American settlers across their hunting grounds in the great plains would disrupt the wanderings of the buffalo herds. They relied on these animals for food, shelter, clothing, tools, & other necessities.
Explain the Donner Party.
In 1846, a group of 87 over landers were trapped by the winter snows in the Sierra Nevada. Almost 1/2 of the party died of starvation.
They were known as the Donner Party and were named after the brothers who led them.
Explain the Mormon Trail.
In 1844, a mob murdered the Mormon leader Joseph Smith. Brigham Young was the new Mormon leader. He decided to take his people to the west in search of religious freedom. Several thousand Mormons emigrated on the Mormon Trail. In 1847, the Mormons stopped at the Great Salt Lake to build their new settlement.
Explain the major battles of the war against Mexico.
When Santa Anna's forces arrived at San Antonio in February 1836, they found over 180 rebels holed up in an abandoned Spanish Catholic mission calls the Alamo. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis, the small force sought to delay Santa Anna and give up Houston's army more more time to prepare. From within the mission Travis dispatched a courier through Mexican lines with a plea to fellow Texans and US citizens for help: the call for reinforcement went almost unanswered. Only 32 settlers from Gonzales, deciding on their own to join the fight, made it into the Alamo. texans held off Santa Anna's besieging army for 13 days. During the standoff the new Texas government met at Washington-on-the-Brazos and formally declared independence from Mexico. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna's army stormed the Alamo. The texans fought off the attackers for six hours, killing or wounding about 600 before being overrun. Although the defenders if the Alamo had been defeated, they had brought Houston's army nearly 2 extra weeks to organize.
Why did the Mexican government close it's borders to American immigration?
Americans didn't adopt Mexican customs, nor did they think of Mexico as their country. The Americans led a revolt that caused the Mexican government to fear that the Americans wanted to overtake Texas, so the government closed the borders to American immigration.
Why did Texans declare their independence from Mexico.
The Mexican government wouldn't lift the ban on immigration to Texas or make Texas a separate state from Coahuila. After President Antonio López de Santa Anna made himself dictator of Mexico, Austin urged Texans to organize an army. During the Battle of Alamo, the new Texas government declared it's independence from Mexico.
How did Texas and Oregon enter the Union?
Texas was annexed after President Tyler sent a resolution to Congress to annex Texas. The resolution passed with a simple majority of Congress. President Polk agreed to split the Oregon territory with Great Britain, so the US acquired Oregon south of 49 degrees north latitude.
What were the provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
Mexico ceded land to the US that included what are now the states of California, Utah, & Nevada, as well as most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. The US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take over $3.5 million in debt that the Mexican government owed American citizens.
Explain how the government dealt with slavery in the territories acquired after the war with Mexico.
In August 1846, Representative David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso. It said that in any territory the US gained from Mexico wouldn't participate in slavery. Southerners were outraged by the this. The W.P. passed in the House of Representatives, but the Senate refused to vote on it. So Senator Lewis proposed popular sovereignty. This meant that the citizens of each new territory would decide whether or not slavery was permitted.
P.S. appealed to many congress members. It removed issue from national politics. Abolitionists argued that it still denied African Americans their right to be free.
List the major features of the Compromise of 1850.
1.) California was admitted to the Union as a free state. The rest of the Mexican cession would have no restrictions on slavery.
2.)The Texas/ New Mexico border question was solved in favor of New Mexico, but the federal government took on Texas's debts. 3.) The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia, but not slavery. Congress could not interfere with the domestic slave trade.
4.) The federal government passed a new fugitive slave law.
Explain the term "Forty-Niners."
The discovery of Gold in California brought thousands of settlers to the territory. By the end of 1849, nearly 80,000 "Forty-Niners" arrived in the territory in search for gold.
Explain how Americans responded to the idea of popular sovereignty.
It seemed democratic. Abolitionist argued it still denied African American their rights not to be enslaved, but Midwesterners liked it because they believed that mostly northern settlers would move to the new territory, so the states would be free.
Why did Zachary Taylor win the election of 1848?
The democrats split their votes between Cass and Van Buren, allowing Taylor to win.
Explain Uncle Tom's Cabin.
~written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
~ started as anti-slavery newspaper; into book in 1852
~writings (about an enslaved African American and his overseer) changed Northern outlooks on African Americans and slavery.
~southerners tried to banned it
~ accused Stowe of writings false info.
~sold millions of copies and had a great affect on public opinion
~ historians believe it was one cause of the Civil War
Explain the Underground Railroad.
Whites and free African Americans helped runaway slaves through the Underground Railroad. "Conductors" secretly transported runaways to freedom in the Northern states or Canada. They gave runaways good and shelter along the way. A famous conductor was Harriet Tubman. She was a runaway slave who continually risked going into the slave states to help free enslaved persons.
What is the Gadsden Purchase?
Southerners wanted a southern route for the railroad. James Gadsden was sent sent by the US government to buy the land from Mexico. In 1853, Mexico agreed to accept $10 million for the territory known as the Gadsden Purchase. This strip of land is today the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico
What events led to "Bleeding Kansas?"
Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the region into 2 territories: Kansas on the south and Nebraska on the north. Northerners were outraged by the bill that broke the Missouri Compromise promise to limit the spread of slavery. In 1855, thousands of armed Missourians came to Kansas and voted illegally to help elect a pro-slavery legislature. Angry antislavery settlers held their own convention in Topeka, Kansas, and wrote their own constitution, excluding slavery. Kansas became the science of a territorial civil war between pro-slavery and antislavery settlers. This became known as "Bleeding Kansas."
Summarize the effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which greatly angered Northerners who wanted to limit slavery. Northerners quickly moved to the territory to created antislavery majority. The New England Emigrant Aid Society helped recruit and outfit antislavery settlers going to Kansas. Pro-slavery senator David Atchison of Missouri asked men from his state to go to Kansas. They voted illegally to elect a pro-slavery legislature. In response, antislavery settlers had a convention and wrote a constitution that excluded slavery. Thus, Kansas had 2 govenerments. Border ruffians attacked Lawrence, a stronghold of antislavery settlers.
*the Kansas-Nebraska Act destroyed the Whig Party.
Why was the Republican Party founded?
Anger over the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused a split in the Whig Party and in the Know-Nothing Party. The Northern Whigs, as well as members of the Free Soil Party and antislavery Democrats, joined together to found the Republican Party. Northern Know-Nothing's eventually joined the Republican Party as well
Why did James Buchanan win the election of 1856?
~He didn't take a stand on the Kansas Nebraska Act since he wasn't in the US at the time.
~He was from Pennsylvania which had the 2nd most electoral votes
~he appealed to southerners bc his record on congress showed he'd make concessions to the south to save the union (he was a northerner though)
~southerners campaigned that electing him would save the union
( & electing Frémont would cause the south to secede)
How did John Brown's raid deepen sectional divisions?
Many northerners viewed brown as a martyr for the slave abolitionist feelings in the North. Southerners viewed Brown as proof that the Northerners were plotting the murder of slaveholders
Describe the Lincoln-Douglas Senate campaign of 1858.
Pg. 116 in notes.
Describe the various attempts to find a compromise between the demands of the North and the South.
Explain why the civil war began.
Why did Lincoln's election as president if the US lead to the secession if the southern states?
The south saw his election as a victory for the abolitionists.
How'd Lincoln keep the border states of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri in the Union?
Martial law was imposed in Baltimore to prevent Maryland alone. Kentucky remain neutral until the confederate forced those voted to stay in the union. Missouri voted to stay in with the federal forces.
Why is John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid considered a turning point on the road to war?
Southerners were frightened and angry that Northerners person encouraged them to rebel. Republicans renounced john browns raid, but many southerners blamed the republicans since the opposed.